An Ideal Dissertation Paper emerges as an Important Aspect for Academic Projects

Whether for graduation level or for Master’s level, preparing proper dissertation paper is a challenge for the students. If the papers are for PhD students, then the stakes are high. Now it is not possible for all to procure enough knowledge and skill to write excellent papers immediately after being admitted to course. On the other hand, the university courses hardly wait for the students’ preparations. Therefore, it is essential to take proper measures before actually entering the courses.

For each and every semester the students are pushed to make papers. These assignments are the actual expositions of their expertise in specific fields. No matter how intricate and complicated the topics are, the students are expected to make proper analysis of them, failing which his grade would be lower. Therefore, the student has to learn first what to include in a dissertation.

What should be included in dissertation?

First and foremost duty of the dissertation writer is to ensure that he presents a new idea backed up by proper thesis. His objective should be convincing the readers. For that, he might have to work on real life examples with which the reader can identify his own matters. With a substantial writing based on facts and an intact thesis, it is possible to attract reader’s attention. The thesis should be coherent and the binding twine to assemble all the facts and present a specific point of view.

Proper Expansion of the Texts:

A clear, intelligent and witty text is always a good-to-read piece for the assignment checkers. The textual discussions should be made through adequate examples and data supports. When working with a research based text, the student has to be careful. He has to think about all the possible aspects of discussion. This would help him to work with additional subjects or topics to ensure no stone is unturned.

Proper Synchronization of the Theory and the Examples:

Contextualizing the theory-based ideas is the final objective for the dissertation writer. If proper balance between the idea and the supporting evidences are not made, then the reader will eventually get bored. Therefore, the writer has to start the thesis after initial introduction in the second or the third page only. Alongside, mentioning of supporting documents and examples is mandatory. At the middle of the paper, writers generally commit the grilling task of making proper analysis to support his point of view of the subject. The concluding part is the hardest where the dissertation writer has to arrange these interconnected facts and figures to help the reader reach a decision.

Taking Proper Initiative:

To write a good dissertation a student may get a lot of advisors, but it would be stupidity to depend on them entirely. It is essential that the student takes his own burden of collecting books, reading them, collating evidences and documents and applying them in the papers. Only Proper initiative and the courage to write out private opinions can ensure a properly written dissertation paper.

All about Referencing Your Paper

What is referencing? What does it include?

Any academic work, be it a general essay writing for senior school or custom term paper writing for college or even research papers for scholars, requires proper writing style and content along with correct and accurate referencing that would, no doubt, add substantial volume and depth to the paper of the academic writer. This referencing which is quite common in such writings is actually an acknowledgement of the contribution of the various authors and researchers or books, reports, papers and several other published or unpublished study materials that you have directly or indirectly used or taken help of while writing your research or thesis paper or likewise. Again, this referencing does not only depend upon a particular quotation or citation. Any borrowed idea, concept, picture or even a single terminology comes under referencing. A proper referencing in an academic work usually appears twice – once, as footnotes to where the citations and references are made and then again at the end of the research essay paper in a bibliography or reference list with complete details of the sources.

How does referencing help? Why does one need referencing in an academic work?

Since referencing, in a way, shows the academic writer’s acknowledging spirit and respect for the intellectual property rights of the scholar and his sincerity towards the subject as a whole, it increases the writer’s prestige among his or her colleagues and creates a rather good impression of him in the academic world. Moreover, it reflects the present writer’s thorough research in such related topics as his own and his vast knowledge, since to cite or to give reference in a research essay means a proper insight and considerable command over that topic or source. Therefore, reference also provides your research essay or paper a firm grounding and act as evidences of its credibility, reliability and even authenticity. Your references are basically serve the purpose of supporting your assertions and inferences and are incorporated into paper in order to strengthen your points and your observations. Thus, the stronger and better built your references are, the more credits and applauds go to your research paper. These things, in fact, also make an academic work persuasive for both the general and the academic readers. Again, proper referencing means to be well acquainted with the works and writings of other related or likewise authors and academic writers and to give due and full credits to their assertions.

What is the importance of correct referencing in any academic writing? Its significance…

Correct referencing is a vital aspect of referencing in any academic work. Be it any general custom term paper writing or some scholarly essay paper writing, a referencing can make or break your entire work in seconds. While, on the one hand, a good and correct essay demonstrates to all the writer’s profound understanding, comprehension and intense familiarity with the subject or topic, on the other, a false, inaccurate or improper reference might demean his or her esteem in the eyes of other academic writers and researchers and thus might become a cause of perpetual embarrassment for the academician. Most importantly, it might nullify the entire hard work and sincere labor and effort put by the academic writer and thus the entire research or term paper work might even get rejected. Added to this is the scope of the charges of plagiarism against the academic writer if he or she is not careful enough to mention all the references with proper precision. This might then lead to legal problems and court cases, which might ruin the writer’s reputation. Generally, a research paper is thus written with the help of a professional research paper or term paper writer available through various websites.

What are the various information sources that require reference?

In many situations and cases, it has been seen that students and scholars are confused regarding exactly what and how much to be used as referencing. A general idea that words, sentences or quotations taken from any books or any such literary sources, however, might get the academic writers in neck deep trouble for, as mentioned earlier, any idea, image or information taken from any source needs to be mentioned as a reference. The following are the general sources where a reference is needed:

  • In case of any kind of pamphlets or brochures issued by any organization
  • Newspapers, magazines, leaflets, articles etc
  • Journals, books and other research papers or materials
  • Films, tele-films, documentaries, television programs, promotional or advertisements
  • Any personal or group interview
  • Websites or any such online sources or discussion forums
  • Letters, Documents, emails or any such group sessions
  • Any image, diagram, picture, illustration or chart
  • Any group lecture, tutorials, seminars or meetings under any particular organization

What are the information sources that need no reference?

However, there are certain sources that need not be mentioned in references or citations. They are generally accepted as common information and have no copyrights as such. Those sources include the following:

  • Any personal experience or source
  • Any personal observation, inference or experiment result
  • Any common knowledge
  • Any kind of personal thought, analysis, evaluation, comments or belief
  • Any universally accepted belief, fact, information or observation based on any given discipline or stream
  • Any traditionally accepted folklore or customs

Citation – a form of reference. What is it?

In the process of writing an academic work, every time while making a reference of any information or any such thing in it, the footnotes that are added instantly on that very page are normally referred to as citations. These citations are not always necessary but are made on some specific cases. These particular cases include the following:

  • Paraphrase/s from some other author’s writings or analysis
  • Any direct quote
  • Any direct or indirect reference to some other author’s or artist’s work or ideas
  • Any discussion or analysis by some other personality

Reference Styles: A Brief Introduction

Reference Styles: A Brief Introduction

Writing an academic essay is a challenging task. Even after you have framed the entire document, there are a lot of risks to be taken care of. While writing research essay or a college essay, a large amount of information and evidence is included. This might lead to copyright infringement, which is called plagiarism. To avoid it, the names of quoted authors are mentioned as ‘references’. There are various styles of referencing which can be broadly divided into three categories: Documentary Note Style, Parenthetical Style and Numbered Style.

Documentary Note Style

In this referential system, the references are given in form of footnotes at the bottom of every page. Notes are indicated by a digit placed after the full stop ending the sentence to which the reference belongs. This is called the ‘note identifier’ and is usually a superscript. These then point to the footnote, which is written by putting the same number followed by the citation of the given source. At the end of the text, a list of all references is produced in the alphabetical order, called Bibliography. This style can be further divided into three categories, separated by subtle differences.

  • Oxford Style: In the Oxford style of referencing, the name of the author is written first. The first name is written as initials while the surname is written in full form. This is followed by the title of the cited work, with minimum capitalization of the words. Then comes volume number or page number. This is followed by the location of publication and year of publication.
  • MHRA Style: The MHRA style is similar to the Oxford style, but has one different feature. In the footnotes, the name of the editor of collection of articles appears after the title of the book followed by abbreviation ‘ed.’ (single editor) or ‘eds’ (multiple editors). However, in the bibliography, the name appears before the title of work.
  • Chicago Humanities Style: As the name suggests, this style is widely used in the field of humanities. This is slightly different from the other two. The name of the authors appears as given in the title of the work, be it full name or initials. The title of the work is capitalized in sentence style, that is, only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. This is followed by date, in the order month, day, year, with the month spelled out. The subsequent lines bear an indent of 1/2 inch.

Parenthetical Style

This style is also known as the Author-Date Style and it is used widely in the field of science. It is characterized by in-text references. The citations are noted down within parentheses before the full stop ending the sentence, which bears the reference. This provides the reader with immediate information, without the need to look for footnotes or end-notes. In addition, at the end of the entire text, a list containing all the works cited is produced in the alphabetical order of the author name.

  • APA Style: This style was developed by the American Psychological Association and is used for research papers. In this style, the author’s name is cited first, with first and middle name in initials and surname in full form. This is followed by the title of the work with only the first word capitalized. This is followed by the publication date in the order of year, month, day.
  • Chicago Author-Date Style: In this style, the name of the author appears as given in the title page. This can be initialized or spelled out. Then follows the title name, with sentence like capitalization. Then the date is given in the order month, day, year. The month is completely spelled out. The subsequent lines are indented by 1/2 inch.
  • Harvard Style: This style is one of the most popular referential styles. The name comes first, with the first name initialized. In case of multiple authors, the names appear with last name followed by first initials separated by commas. The title comes next, with sentence style capitalization. This is followed by the date in the order of day, month, year with no punctuation.
  • MLA Style: This style was put forward by the Modern Language Association. The name of the author comes first, written as in the title page. In case of multiple authors, for the first author, last name comes first. For the rest, the normal rule is followed. It is preceded by ‘Ed.’ in case of editor or compiler. Then the title follows, with capitalization of first, last and principal words. Date is then mentioned in the day, month, year format. For month, the 3-4 abbreviation is used. All citations are double-spaced.

Numbered Style

In this style, citations are indicated with Arabic numbers within square brackets, which are usually in superscript. The references are then listed in a numbered reference list after the text. References are numbered in the order in which they first appear in the text. Same numbers are used to indicate references to the same author.

  • Vancouver Style: This is a popular form of the numbered style. The name of the author comes first, with initials for first and middle names. Then comes the title with capitalization of first word, proper nouns and abbreviations, which are generally capitalized. The date is then mentioned in the year, month, day format. For the month, the 3-letter abbreviation is used.
  • AMA Style: This style was introduced by the American Medical Association and is used for all medical research papers and journals. It follows the same format as Vancouver for name of author and title of work. However, the date is written differently. The month, day, year format is followed and the month is spelled out.
  • IEEE Style: Given by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, it is followed in the field of technology. The author’s name is mentioned by giving the first name before the surname. Then the title of the article is mentioned in quotation marks. The title of the book or journal is given in Italics. This is followed by the year of publication.

This introduction to the basic features of referential styles should be enough to help an academic essay writer differentiate between them. One should inquire the respective institution regarding the accepted referential style before starting the work. It is also necessary to stick to a single style throughout the essay; styles should not be mixed up. With these tips, one will successfully escape charges of plagiarism.

APA Formatting and Style Guide

An Introductory Guide to APA Referencing

The American Psychological Association introduced a special form of referencing in their research essay and academic essays. This style, known as APA style of referencing, has been adapted by various education institutions as the preferred format for presenting citations in academic papers, especially in the field of science. It falls under the Parenthetical or Author-Date style of referencing. In this form of referencing, there are no footnotes or endnotes. Instead, the citations occur in the text, enclosed by parentheses, before the full stop of the sentence containing the reference. At the end of the entire text, a reference list is produced which consists of all the citations throughout the essay arranged in alphabetical order of the author’s name. While it may sound similar to the Harvard or MLA style, there are subtle syntactical differences that separate them.

In-Text Citations

The citations that occur within the text are rather simple in format when compared to those of the reference list. The general format is: (Author, date of publication, page number). Now there are some special cases where this format has to be tweaked a little.

  • If the name has to be used within the sentence structure, the date and page appears within parentheses after the name.

Author (date, page)

  • If there are more than one citations for a single reference, the citations are separated by a semicolon.

(Author1, date1, page1; Author2, date2, page2)

  • If there are multiple works by the same author that have to be cited at the same time, arrange the dates from the oldest to the newest. Use suffixes of lowercase alphabets if different works were published in the same year. There should not be any punctuation or space between the year and the suffix.

(Author, date1, date2a, date2b, date3)

  • If there are upto five authors of the same work, all the names have to be cited in the first instance. In subsequent citations, only the name of the first author has to be mentioned followed by ”et al.”

First: (Author1, Author2, Author3, Author4, Author5, date)

Second: (Author1 et al., date)

If the number of author exceeds 6, only the first author is mentioned followed by ”et al.” and date for all citations. Details are provided in the list of references at the end of the text.

  • If there is no author, the shortened name of the title of the work replaces the section for author’s name. The title must appear in double quotes and with the first word capitalized). If the source is anonymous, the word ‘Anonymous’ is written as if it is the author’s name.

(”Short title”, date)

(Anonymous, date)

  • In case there is a group of authors, in the first citation the name of the group is spelled out. Abbreviations can be used from subsequent citations.

First: [Full name of group (abbreviation), date]

Second: (abbreviation, date)

Besides these points, there are a few more factors that have to be kept in mind. Citations must be given everytime a reference occur. Otherwise, this will lead to copyright infringement followed by charges of plagiarism. In case a secondary source is being cited, the primary source has to be mentioned before the secondary source, separated by ”as cited in”.

Reference List

In the APA style of referencing, apart from the in-text references, a list of citations is presented at the end of the entire text. It must be written on a fresh page with heading ‘References’ neatly centred. All the entries must be double spaced. A hanging indent is preferred. This means that the second and subsequent lines of each entry will bear an indent of half an inch. Entries are to be made in the alphabetical order of the author’s name. If more than one work of the same author is cited, the work with the earliest publication date is cited first. Also, if a secondary source is being cited, only the second source is to be mentioned in the reference list.

  • The format of citations for printed books is:

[Author, First Initial.Middle Initial. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher]

  • The format of citation for online books is:

[Author, First Initial.Middle Initial. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www…]

The titles in both cases must be given in italics. Volume number, chapter and page, if available, can be included in parentheses after the title before the full stop separating it from the year. For up to 7 authors involved in the same work, all names have to be listed separated by commas. If there are more than 7 authors, then the name of the first six are to be listed followed by three dots and then the name of the last author. In case there are no authors, the title of the work replaces the section where author’s name is to be mentioned. If the work is anonymous, ‘Anonymous’ is written as if it is the author’s name. In case the author is also the publisher, the term ‘Author’ is placed where the publisher’s name occurs. In case a group of authors is present, the full official name of the group is to be used in place of author’s name.

  • The format of citations for journals and newspaper articles is:

[Author1, FirstInitial1.MiddleInitial1., Author2, FirstInitial2.MiddleInitial2., & Author3, FirstInitial3.MiddleInitial3. (year). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume Number (issue number), page number. Doi/’Retrieved from…’]

If the given magazine or newsletter does not bear a volume number, the month is to be included along with the year of publication. In case of daily or weekly papers, the day is to be included too. In this situation, the page number is to be preceded by ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’

As in case of books, up to 7 authors are mentioned in citations. If the number of authors exceeds 7, the first six are mentioned followed by three dots and then the last author. If there is no author, title of work moves to the position of author’s name. The first letter of the first significant word of the title is used for ordering alphabetically. If the title starts with a number, the number is spelled out for ordering. ‘Anonymous’ is used as if it were a name.

Hopefully this information is enough to provide an idea about the basics of the APA referencing style. It must be noted that there are much more intricate rules to suit specific situations. For that, one must study the original APA manual carefully.

How to do is Harvard Referencing?

What is Harvard referencing?

What do you mean by Harvard Referencing?

In the academic world, references and citations are quite common and there are apparently thousands of different styles in which this can be done during writing academic research papers or term papers. According to the different academic fields and streams, the referencing style preferences and priorities vary. Moreover, different publishing houses have their own preferred citation house styles. The most popular among them is perhaps the Harvard referencing style. It has its origin in ‘The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation’ that was published sometimes back by the HLRA (Harvard Law Review Association). Today the Harvard referencing style is followed in several fields like Law, Behavioral and Social Sciences, Medicines and so on.

Various important and unique Features of Harvard school of Referencing

There are several basic features that characterize the Harvard school of referencing style that are used extensively by the academic writers for their research essay papers or term papers. These features are as follows:

  • The Basics: Special emphasize on mention of the original author’s name and date of publication of his work with a repeated mention again in the Bibliography section at the end of the writing in an alphabetical order.
  • The Capitals: Only the author’s surname or family is required to be capitalized in only the Bibliography part and not in the body of the writing, which again is not compulsory.
  • The Punctuations: There is no hard and fast rule to punctuate. The only requirement is to be uniform with one single style of punctuation.
  • Italics and underline: While using both Italics and underline at the same time is not necessary, it is advisable to go with the former and use it in case of mentioning the title or name of the information source.
  • Multiple Authors: While mentioning more than one author, it is a rule to follow the publication order and separate each author by a semicolon.
  • Multiple works: In case of referencing more than one work by the same author, simply follow the date of publication order and then alphabetically.
  • Citing an already cited reference: Mention a detail of the writer who has made the particular reference before, in the reference list.
  • Quotation: While short quotes can be mentioned inside the body of the writing, longer ones need to be cited separately in a different paragraph.
  • Reference list: This reference list comes at the end of each text and are listed alphabetically and then by the date of publication of the particular work.
  • Paraphrasing: A paraphrasing, though usually done in the writer’s own language, still needs referencing due to the concept or idea. It, however, requires just a mention of the author’s name and the year.
  • Online or web source referencing: In case of using a web source as reference, it is necessary to mention the author and the year and not the URL or the web page address of the source.

How does the Harvard Referencing work in academic line? Its importance

Referencing is an essential and important part of any academic writing, be it any thesis or research paper, dissertation proposal writing or term paper. It is basically needed to acknowledge and respect the facts, concepts ideas, quotes or any other form of information or image of any other researcher or author that the academic writer has used in his/her entire work. Now the importance of the Harvard referencing in the academic field is manifold since it provides an easy and user friendly way of citation thus both maintain the writer’s dignity and easing down his work. While otherwise, the Harvard style offers the usual referencing advantages and requirements, it also adds some sort of distinction to the writer’s academic work due to its variation, although slight, in punctuation, abbreviation, capitalization, Italics etc.

The basic functions of Harvard Referencing

The basic function of Harvard style of referencing is same as the function of a general referencing. These are as follows:

  • It helps the readers sufficiently to trace the referred work or information without much difficulty
  • It provides enough evidence to the readers and others for the academic writer to justify his vast reading and research on a given subject or topic
  • The Harvard referencing style also includes a wide range of information referencing rules which leaves practically no chance for any kind of plagiarism
  • The ‘in text’ referencing and the detailed Reference List system (also called the Bibliography) at the end of the academic work, in the Harvard referencing style, helps the readers to understand the writer’s point without any huge effort

Examples of Harvard Referencing

One of the most popular and frequently used referencing styles of Staffordshire, the Harvard style of referencing is also commonly called the Author Date referencing style. As the name suggests, it lays emphasis mainly on the name of the creator and the date of publication of the work. A compiled list of a few Harvard referencing style examples is provided below for a better comprehension.

  • Newspaper article (No author): Ex – The New York Times 8 December 2010, p. 6
  • Website: Ex – New York security Exchange 2007
  • Blog: Ex – Godwin 2004
  • From a cited source: Ex – Macpherson, cited in Munich 2005
  • Web Document: Ex – Department of Industry, Hospitality, Resources and Tourism 2008
  • Television program: Ex – Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (1995). BBC 2, 5 January
  • Newspaper article (with author): Ex – Sabo. G. M (2006) “ Nationalism and Patriotism” , XYZ Paper, 3 December 2003, p. 18
  • Book Chapter: Ex -Strand, J.(1994), “ The self awareness”, Discovering the Self, London: S.T, p 22 – 31
  • Video: Ex-The Anger Management. (1996) Directed by T. F. Moody. Hollywood: HBO Movies
  • Journal article: Ex – Somerset, T. J. (1996), “The Human Mind”. The British Daily Health Journal, 12 (7), 38 – 47
  • Quotation (in text): Ex – Waugh, G. B. (2006: 23)

How to Oxford Referencing in your research paper?

The best and the most premier online reference product solving paperwork worldwide!

While submitting a project, thesis or any academic work we are always asked to provide a reference for our ideas. This might seem a burden but is essential in many respects. One shall never fail to acknowledge the people’s ideas. Also, the reader of the particular thesis submitted will be able to locate the cited references easily and also evaluate the interpretation of the ideas. This is a genuine proof of avoiding plagiarism and will also show an evidence of the breadth and depth of one’s reading.

Oxford Reference is a similar online savior for the students bringing together almost 2 million digitized entries spanning across oxford dictionaries, companions and encyclopedias.

How does this feature function?

As we browse through Oxford reference for assignment help we may find results that range from short entry general reference to more in-depth articles on specialized subjects. The oxford referencing style is a note citation system, and is sometimes referred to as a documentary note style. It has two components.

Footnote citation and Reference list

Footnote citation – for this method a superscript number is inserted in the text at a point where one shall cite the source of information. The superscript number than appears at the bottom of the page where the footnote is recorded.

  • Then one required to state the authors the author’s name or initials before the surname. This is followed by citing a single page reference or more as p. 3 or pp. 3-6 respectively.
  • Ibid. is used to indicate that the previous reference page has been used again. If one refers to the same work again in the footnotes, it is important to use the author’s surname and the page number for subsequent references.
  • Acknowledgment must be given to both direct and indirect quotations. Footnotes are also used to acknowledge the information, ideas and interpretations, even when they are just described. Direct quotations must be enclosed within single quotation marks.

Example of Footnotes – “R.P. Winnington-Ingram, Mode of Ancient Greek Music, London, Cambridge University Press, 1936, p. vii “

Reference list – the complete details for each citation or reference is listed at the end of an essay or assignment.

  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname. If one has included works by the same author, it should be arranged according to the dates.
  • The names should be written only using the initials with no full stops or spaces.
  • On citing a journal article, the full page numbers of the article should be used p.165-217
  • The display or format of the reference depends on the type of reference one is citing.
  • In footnote the author’s name or initials precede the surname while in reference list the surname comes first – P.Grimshaw and Grimshaw.P respectively.
  • The reference list entries for books does not include page numbers.
  • One must check the reference format tabs, for a full list of reference examples.

Example of Reference lists – Mintz, S.,’Food Enigmas, Colonial and Post Colonial’, Gastronomia, Vol. 10, no.1, 2010, p. 149.

The types of Oxford References available

  • Oxford Quick Reference – this is a core foundation of 135+ subjects, languages and quotations dictionaries providing carefully analyzed short entry content used for coursework help.

This program is updated monthly by Oxford’s experienced reference staff, external academic advisors based on user feedbacks. They check and revise articles for top-level accuracy. There are three major content releases a year, which adds titles and editions and they are made available to individuals and institutions all over the world via an annual subscription. This is best used for checking a fact, finding a key or information on a person, concept or term.

  • Oxford Reference Library – this foundation consists of 200+ specialized titles from Oxford’s award winning Encyclopedias and companions and selection of partner publisher’s works.

They are published in print and new titles and editions are added throughout the year. Institutions can build and customize their collections with the subjects they need by title-by-title purchase. It includes Oxford’s most popular and visited titles like The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd Edition and Oxford Classical Dictionary, 4th Edition.

  • Oxford Reference also comes in a Premium Package mainly for Institutions, which provide both quick fast checking and deeper research.

All the 25 core subjects required for essays and academic research are represented across hundreds of titles, and it includes all the updating and exclusive content provided by Oxford Quick Reference Collection, with critical selection of Oxford’s specialized titles.

The researching experience with Oxford Reference

Functionality –

Tool library widget – after logging into Oxford reference one can select whether to see the results from the Reference list or full texts available via the library.

Annotation functionality – one can select text to highlight with own notes, and after signing in to the personal profile annotations can be stored and managed under ‘my work’.

Oxford Dictionaries widget allows one to see the definitions in Oxford Dictionaries online.

Oxford Index Underbar – this is a tool at the bottom of the browser which offers free search and discovery by generating links related to the content from Oxford’s online resources.

Flexible User Experience –

One can narrow down the search with a multitude of subjects or reference type filters by selecting ‘book’ or ‘entry’ to see the results displayed in the preferred format.

Research can be customized by saving the research journey, titles and entries. Content can even be shared via social bookmarking and email.

There are few research tools that can be used by the ones who haven’t subscribed as well. These include overview pages, timelines, quotations and featured articles by contributors.

What are the examples of featured articles included in Oxford Referencing?

The Normans at Our Table: John Ayto – explores the extent to which Normans have influenced the 21st vocabulary focusing on gastronomic and culinary terminology.

Outlooks on Life: Susan Radcliff – takes a look at the outlook of life at the start of New Year, etc.

How to do MLA Referencing?

An inherent part of modern literature – Modern Language Associations

What is MLA referencing?

This is a style that is used to write papers and cite sources within liberal arts and humanities in the present day. All fields of literature agree on the need to document scholarly borrowings but documentation conventions vary because of the different needs for scholarly disciplines. MLA referencing is one such style or discipline, which is widely used, as it is generally simpler and more concise than other styles. It features parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. This citation style has undergone significant changes with the every new edition.

This style has been widely adopted by schools, academic departments and instructors all over the world. Their guidelines are used by over 1,100 journals, newsletter, magazines, university and commercial press. They are mainly followed throughout North America, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Taiwan and such other places. The MLA association publishes two authoritative explanations of MLA style : the MLA Handbook for writers of Research papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. It describes how easy is it to use and interpret this style even for users unfamiliar with nuances of scholarly discourse. When no style is specified, it becomes a good general style to use. The style has two meanings expression and presentation.

The types and styles of MLA references –

There are three basic styles of references that is author date, bibliography and note, in the form of endnotes and footnotes. It uses the bibliography style with text citations in the author-page format. The references and citations must also correspond that is everything cited in the text must be referenced, and the only works cited are included in the reference list. MLA style places the reference list under the heading Works Cited to offer a reminder to this correspondence. The references are composed of elements like –

Authors – the Works Cited are organized according to the authors. Therefore the lead author’s name goes last name first and the other author’s names follow the order with the conventional usage of conjunctions and punctuations.

Titles (as parts) – articles and chapters are parts of works and volumes and its titles are capitalized and placed in quotes.

Tiles (as volumes) – the titles or the names of books or journals are underlined or placed in italics other than being capitalized.

Publication information (for books) – MLA style introduces the publisher of the volume, by giving the name of the publisher and the place of the publication, followed by the year.

Publication information (for periodicals) – no publisher is given for journals or periodicals, just the name of the journal is sufficient, this however is followed by the volume (date): page.

Internet access – the dates the sources are accessed are followed by URL in brackets.

Example : Watts, Alan. “The Art of Contemplation.” Cloud-Hidden, Whereabouts Unknown: A Mountain Journal. New York: Vintage Books, 1974. 179-96. Print.

All this together assist in the coursework writing service to any institution.

The MLA style includes certain rules these are –

Using the international format (day month year) that is full dates by abbreviating the month.

Every word in a title is capitalized except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions. The capitalization is generally used for headings and subheadings.

Punctuation is important.

The names and titles are underlined or written in italics.

Journals are published in volumes thus the references to these journals note the number in the volume form : volume: number.

The general points for using references –

Points for in-text references are –

  • if the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence it is enough to cite just the page number.
  • Font and capitalization must match the reference list.
  • Long quotations should be indented
  • If one is searching for more than one reference within the same point in a document the references should be separated with a semicolon.
  • The works with no author must be referred by the title.
  • If one is citing for two works by the same author, a comma must be added after the author’s name with the title words to distinguish between them in the in-text citation.
  • Two authors with the same surname must be referred by the initials.

The general points to be listed for reference listing –

  • The heading for reference list is Work Cited which should be focused on.
  • The reference should be formatted with double spacing and a hanging indent
  • All significant words of the title and subtitles should be capitalized
  • The author’s names should be listed with forenames if known
  • The name of the first author is inverted to the list of the family name; additional authors are not inverted to the list.
  • If one cites for more than one author, the names must be given in the first entry only. Thereafter hyphens are used instead of the names.
  • If a reference does not have an author, it is cited by the title.

How are the references and pages composed?

The references to various sources are composed in block formats. As for the book the format that is used is –

Author, First Middle. The Title of the Book or Volume. Xth ed. Trans. First M. Last. City:Publisher, 2006. Print.

The MLA style also uses abbreviations in references, even devotes a chapter to the topic.

This style also includes the name of the medium of publication in every reference, that is the source of the Print document or web page, PDF file, audiocassette, videocassette, tweet etc

There are three basic differences in the page format of the MLA handbooks – it does not allow the use of headings and sub headings in papers, it requires everything to be double spaced when block paragraph spacing for block quotes, headings and references, block quotes require a double intent, intended a full inch instead half from the left margin.

These are few of the features of the MLA references used by an academic writing.

What is Oscola referencing?

What is Oscola referencing? Is there any difference in this referencing when compared to oxford referencing?

What is Oscola Referencing?

The Oscola or the Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities, style of referencing is that numeric format of referencing which is used and preferred by the academic writers belonging to the Bristol Institute of Legal Practice and the British Law School. Thus, designed mainly to be used by the Oxford University students, the Oscola referencing method today is the common and required format for the Law practitioners and the law students both in Britain and outside. In other words, Oscola is basically a guide to the legal citations used by law academic writers while writing an academic or research paper in the same field. It stands for consistency and easy understanding of the readers of the complicated matters of the legal world and is primarily based on the common UK legal citation practices.

Features of Oscola referencing

There are indeed quite a few salient features of the Oscola referencing style which are today also commonly called the footnote style referencing as it generally avoids the in text citations, punctuations or the end notes. Some of these features are as follows:

  • While citing or referring to some other work, include the footnote in the form of a small subscript number like eg^2 which can be linked to the particular cited sentence with the same subscript number.
  • While using a reference for the first time, complete detail of the source is to be provided.
  • In the bibliography, the information or the referred item if referred in a number of pages, is to be cited as a whole and not as specific or individual pages.
  • An Oscola bibliography usually contains three sections, namely –

1. Table of Cases

2. Table of Legislation and

3. Bibliography (it includes mainly the secondary sources like books, journals newspapers, websites etc.)

  • Full stops are not to be used in case of the abbreviations
  • The citations are all separated by semi colons
  • Proper forms of Italics and punctuations are necessary, if at all to be used, in the particular cases and places.

Advantages and uses of the Oscola referencing style

The Oscola style is important and useful for the legal field due to several reasons. Some of the basic reasons are as follows:

  • Since legal matters themselves are sometimes rather complicated, it is necessary for them to understand a subject without any difficulty and fast. The Oscola referencing actually does just that. It helps in a clear and fast understanding of the whole subject matter.
  • As the Oscola style helps in referring the complicated legal matters in a simplified and familiar way, it allows easy identification and tracking down of the academic writer’s referred source.
  • It is a consistent format and does not allow or provide much scope for variation and diversion. As a result, it is quite easy, for both the readers and the writers, to follow and comprehend.
  • The Oscola referencing, due to its familiarity and easy comprehensiveness, facilitates the reader to follow an argument properly and thus helps in the persuasion and reinforcement of the academic writer’s point, which makes the whole thing far easier for the reader.

Few examples of Oscola referencing

The Oscola referencing style does not demand much effort on the part of the readers for comprehension. Thus, it is quite well known for its simple methods, consistency, and familiarity and, of course, easy usage. However, the Oscola referencing is divided into the following two divisions:

  • The Primary Legal Source
  • The Secondary Legal Source

These divisions are all made according to the nature of the source of the references and citations. While the Primary legal source includes law reports, cases, legislations from the EU and UK, the Secondary legal source includes the journals, books, articles, policy statements, websites etc. Some good examples would help in a better understanding of the Oscola referencing. These examples are as follows:

Primary Sources:

  • For referencing a particular case, it is important to mention the name of the case, the neutral citation and the volume with the first page of the law report citation. The court name also needs to be mentioned.

E.g.: R (Roberts) v Parole Board [2004] EWCA Civ 1031, [2005] QB 410

  • The paragraph numbers are required to be mentioned in third brackets or square brackets, as they are also called, while pinpointing at the end of a citation with the court.

E.g.: Bunt v Tilley [2006] EWHC 407 (QB), [2006] 3 All ER 336 [1]–[37]

  • In case of statutes and statutory instruments citations, the decree along with the order is to be mentioned in the reference.

E.g.: Penalties for Disorderly Behaviour (Amendment of Minimum Age) Order 2004, SI 2004/3166

  • While making an EU legislation reference or case citation, the common Oscola norm is to give the year of the decree and the case details.

Eg: Council Regulation (EC) 139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings (EC Merger Regulation) [2004] OJ L24/1, art 5, Case C–176/03 Commission v Council [2005]

Secondary Sources:

  • The secondary source referencing includes mentioning the author’s name with the name and year of publication of the work. The page numbers are to be mentioned at the end of the citations following the brackets.

Eg: Gareth Jones, Goff and Jones: The Law of Restitution(1st supp, 7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2009)

  • For referencing from the Journals and the articles, for pinpointing, it is necessary to put comma between the first page of that article and the page pinpointed.

Eg: JAG Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64

Difference between Oscola and Oxford referencing

The differences between the Oxford style of referencing and the Oscola method are quite manifold. This is because the purpose of the two methods is inherently different and thus their target readers and functions are also a bit separate from each other. However, the basic principal of the referencing and citation style remains true for both – easy understanding of the readers. While the Oxford lays stress on the proper punctuations and in text citations with accurate date and year of publication of work, the Oscola avoids the uses of punctuations in most of the cases and prefers footnotes instead of the instant in text references.

What is difference between different kinds of referencing styles?

What is Difference between different kinds of referencing styles?

Primary types of referencing styles

References or citations are basically acknowledgement of any author or creator’s work by any other academic writer of any research essay or other such academic writing whenever his or her work is mentioned in the current academic writer’s academic research work or custom term paper. Now, based on the different ways in which these records and sources are used and the citations made, the referencing style is broadly divided into the following three categories:

  • Documentary Note style: In this particular system, references are made in the form of footnotes or endnotes at the end of the page or after the text. These are generally denoted by digits.
  • Parenthetical or author date style: These are actually in text references that are made within parenthesis and occur generally within the sentence before the full stop, where in the reference has been made.
  • Numbered style: In this referencing system, the sources are mentioned in Arabic numbers within superscript or third brackets at the end of the academic research work or custom term paper in a properly numbered reference list.

Some of the most popular styles of referencing

Now, these different types of referencing styles are further subdivided into a number of styles depending on their uses in different academic fields and institutions. Some of the most popular form of referencing or citation styles are as listed below:

  • Oxford Referencing: A referencing system formulated by the University of Oxford, for its various referencing and citation purposes and to be followed in most of the disciplines, though mainly the literary and humanities ones.
  • Harvard Referencing: It is actually a generic term and the style is usually referred to any format which follows the author date referencing style, the in text system and the also the referencing list at the end of the work, document or book. Notably, it has no official manual or guide.
  • Oscola Referencing: A branch of the Oxford referencing, this style is used exclusively for the citation of the legislative and other such legal matters and is quite popular in Britain and some other parts.
  • Chicago Referencing: It is one of the most popular forms of referencing in the academic world of writing. It universally follows the footnote and author date referencing style out of which the footnote style is quite common in the Literature and humanities field like in the books, newspapers, journals, magazines etc.
  • APA Referencing: The American Psychological Association reference style is the standard reference format used widely by the students, academic writers and researchers mainly in the field of psychology, education and also in some sub groups of Social sciences and other such disciplines. It is a variant of the Harvard referencing style.
  • IEEE Referencing: Short for the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, it is the referencing style of a professional body of publishers dedicated to the field of Electronics and electrical engineering and computer sciences.
  • Turabian Referencing: This type of referencing are actually designed for the high school or the college students for writing their academic papers or custom term papers and to be used in case of all kinds of subjects and disciplines.
  • AMA Referencing: AMA or the American Medical Association referencing style is used in case of all medical, health or biological science reference purposes.
  • MLA Referencing: Abbreviated for the Modern Language Association of America, this format is generally used in the field of Arts, Literature, Linguistics and other Humanities groups.
  • Vancouver Referencing: It is a generic referencing term and the format namely the numbered list style, is widely used in the fields of health and Medical sciences.
  • ACS Referencing: This style belongs to the American Chemical Society and is quite popular in the chemical and related fields. It follows the numbered style and in text format of the Harvard.
  • CSE/CBE Referencing: Belonging basically to the Council of Science or Biology Editors, this referencing style is widely used in the science discipline and follows the numbered reference system all alphabetically arranged by the names of the author.
  • AGLC Referencing: the Australian Guide Legal Citation is the standard guide to references in the legal field and follows the detailed footnote style which makes it quite convenient for use.
  • AGPS/AGIMO Referencing: This is the standard Australian Guide issued by the Government Publishing services and the Information Management Office for the Australian publications and in fact forms the basis of the Harvard Referencing. It adapts the numbered style and the footnote referencing.

Functions and features of the different referencing styles with examples

All the referencing styles are basically formulated and created to serve one primary purpose which is giving the proper credit to a creator of any work if and when that work and the creator is mentioned in another writer’s work. It is also aimed at easing the understanding of the particular subject, in carrying forward and supporting a specific point in question or presenting any textual evidence to a point etc. While most style favor the footnote or endnote pattern and the in text citation, there are few variations in the uses of italics and punctuation, the arrangement of citations and in the preferred fields they are generally used in. Examples of some main reference styles are as follows:

  • Harvard: Hodge, R. W. & Tureiman, D. J. (1968), ‘Class Identification in the United States’, American Journal of Sociology, Vol 73, no. 4, pp. 535-547.
  • MLA: Lentricchia, Frank. Modernist Quartet. New York: Cambridge UP, 1994.
  • APA: Van Roon, A., Mulder, L., Althaus, M., and Mulder, G. (2004).
  • Vancouver: Festinger L, Riecken H.W., Schachter S. When Prophecy Fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1956.

Difference between the different styles

The primary difference between the different kinds of reference style is that each is used in their respective fields and is seldom used elsewhere. In fact each has its own house style for which they can be easily distinguished from one another, be it in the citation pattern, the uses of punctuation and italics, the place of reference(whether footnote or endnote) or in the author date and publication arrangement. Thus, each style is different from the other although they might have few similarities.

What are the major differences between footnotes and end-notes used for the referencing purpose?

What are footnotes and end-notes?

While the footnotes are the series of texts that the academic writer usually incorporates into his research or essay writing right at the bottom of the page which act as a guidance to the readers on a particular topic. They are further referred to by small subscripted numerical that are added by the academic writer just after the cited portion for the readers to have a better and detailed knowledge on the cited information and to share the writer’s thoughts, views and any inferences, if any, on that particular topic. However, on the other hand, endnotes are added by the author at the end of a chapter, a document or even the book in which the citations are made. They are written on a separate and different page from the actual text.

Their applications and their functions in case of a citation

At a cursory glance, it might be said that both the footnote and the endnote, in any academic essay writing or text, serve more or less the same purpose and possess the same kind of characteristics, features and functions. They are generally used in case of a citation or reference for the reader’s better understanding and comprehension of the topic or subject and also to allow the academic writer pay his acknowledgement and credit to the source and the creator of the cited part and other related information. These notes also provide the academic writer an opportunity to clear any confusion regarding any citation or reference. They are vital texts that the academic writer inserts and uses in his research paper or custom term paper writing for further clarifications, and to incorporate his own thoughts and opinions on a particular topic.

Examples of each type of note

The importance and significance of the footnotes and the endnotes and their proper and suitable application can be well understood from some basic examples of each type with all their features and characteristics. Few of those examples are as follows:

Examples of the Footnote:

  • Within the research paper: A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school.²

Footnote: ²A variety of research based articles and ideas for developing early learning skills can be found at www.readingrockets.org.

  • Copyright permission footnote: Footnote: From: “How to Raise a Technologically Competent Child,” by Smuten, F. and Dorgwab, T., 2011, Journal of Early Childhood Development, 76, page 23. Copyright 2011 by Dragon Press, Reprinted with Permission.
  • For additional information inside text: While it is generally assumed that all large dogs are in need of copious amounts of exercise that would prevent them from being suitable pets for smaller residences, recent research has suggested this is a fallacy.³

Footnote: ³See Smith (2013) to see more information specific to large dogs and exercise needs.

Examples of the Endnote:

  • For an in text citation: “Readers of academic and scholarly books usually prefer footnotes to endnotes because the former allow them to skim the notes without losing their place in the text.” The endnote here is presented at the end as:(Amy Einsohn, The Copyeditor’s Handbook. Univ. of California Press, 2006).
  • For reference to a journal: Barbara Wallruff, Word Court (New York: Harcourt, 2000), 34, Further citations to this work are mentioned in the text. (The Chicago Manual of Style. Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003)

Differences between the footnotes and the endnotes

Both the footnote and the endnote are useful tools that the academic writer uses in his writing both for the facilitation of the writer himself and the readers too. One of the most remarkable things is that they are widely used both in the official matters, in the professional world and also in the academic line both by the research scholars and by the young high school students. They are of no doubt of utmost importance in each and every field and possess some integral features and differences. Some of the primary and basic differences between the two text types are as listed below:

  • A footnote, as the name suggests, usually comes at the foot of the text of the particular page, where the citation or reference is made while an endnote generally occurs at the very end of a chapter, a document or, at times, even the complete textwhere in a particular citation is made in the formof, may be, a phrase, a sentence, a passage or a quotation.
  • Footnotes are generally referred by some sort of subscriptednumbers, which enable the readers to trace them, which is not required in the case of an endnote.
  • Unlike the footnotes, the endnotes are, however, written on a completely separate sheet than the actual text and appear at the end of the academic writing or the text.
  • Moreover, it must be mentioned that while a footnote occurs at the end or foot of the page and might somewhat reduce its aesthetics, an endnote does no such harm to the visual looks and aesthetics of the text or document page, making it look clean and nice, without the subscripted numbers by the side of the citations.
  • One of the advantages of the footnote over the endnote, however, is that while the footnote can be accessed by the readers and the students any time during their reading right at the bottom of the page, the endnote has to be reached out to by them only at the end of their reading, at the very end of the academic text or book for those additional information and extra background studies. This would also require several series of flipping through the text or book pages for each and every reference sources and information, which no doubt is a sort of disadvantage.
  • Endnotes are also a form of footnotes, which are too big to be placed at the end of the page, which would invariably make the writing look unclean and clumsy. Thus, the endnotes are sometimes an extension of the footnotes but in a much cleaner and expletive way.