What are the major differences between footnotes and end-notes used for the referencing purpose?

What are footnotes and end-notes?

While the footnotes are the series of texts that the academic writer usually incorporates into his research or essay writing right at the bottom of the page which act as a guidance to the readers on a particular topic. They are further referred to by small subscripted numerical that are added by the academic writer just after the cited portion for the readers to have a better and detailed knowledge on the cited information and to share the writer’s thoughts, views and any inferences, if any, on that particular topic. However, on the other hand, endnotes are added by the author at the end of a chapter, a document or even the book in which the citations are made. They are written on a separate and different page from the actual text.

Their applications and their functions in case of a citation

At a cursory glance, it might be said that both the footnote and the endnote, in any academic essay writing or text, serve more or less the same purpose and possess the same kind of characteristics, features and functions. They are generally used in case of a citation or reference for the reader’s better understanding and comprehension of the topic or subject and also to allow the academic writer pay his acknowledgement and credit to the source and the creator of the cited part and other related information. These notes also provide the academic writer an opportunity to clear any confusion regarding any citation or reference. They are vital texts that the academic writer inserts and uses in his research paper or custom term paper writing for further clarifications, and to incorporate his own thoughts and opinions on a particular topic.

Examples of each type of note

The importance and significance of the footnotes and the endnotes and their proper and suitable application can be well understood from some basic examples of each type with all their features and characteristics. Few of those examples are as follows:

Examples of the Footnote:

  • Within the research paper: A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school.²

Footnote: ²A variety of research based articles and ideas for developing early learning skills can be found at www.readingrockets.org.

  • Copyright permission footnote: Footnote: From: “How to Raise a Technologically Competent Child,” by Smuten, F. and Dorgwab, T., 2011, Journal of Early Childhood Development, 76, page 23. Copyright 2011 by Dragon Press, Reprinted with Permission.
  • For additional information inside text: While it is generally assumed that all large dogs are in need of copious amounts of exercise that would prevent them from being suitable pets for smaller residences, recent research has suggested this is a fallacy.³

Footnote: ³See Smith (2013) to see more information specific to large dogs and exercise needs.

Examples of the Endnote:

  • For an in text citation: “Readers of academic and scholarly books usually prefer footnotes to endnotes because the former allow them to skim the notes without losing their place in the text.” The endnote here is presented at the end as:(Amy Einsohn, The Copyeditor’s Handbook. Univ. of California Press, 2006).
  • For reference to a journal: Barbara Wallruff, Word Court (New York: Harcourt, 2000), 34, Further citations to this work are mentioned in the text. (The Chicago Manual of Style. Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003)

Differences between the footnotes and the endnotes

Both the footnote and the endnote are useful tools that the academic writer uses in his writing both for the facilitation of the writer himself and the readers too. One of the most remarkable things is that they are widely used both in the official matters, in the professional world and also in the academic line both by the research scholars and by the young high school students. They are of no doubt of utmost importance in each and every field and possess some integral features and differences. Some of the primary and basic differences between the two text types are as listed below:

  • A footnote, as the name suggests, usually comes at the foot of the text of the particular page, where the citation or reference is made while an endnote generally occurs at the very end of a chapter, a document or, at times, even the complete textwhere in a particular citation is made in the formof, may be, a phrase, a sentence, a passage or a quotation.
  • Footnotes are generally referred by some sort of subscriptednumbers, which enable the readers to trace them, which is not required in the case of an endnote.
  • Unlike the footnotes, the endnotes are, however, written on a completely separate sheet than the actual text and appear at the end of the academic writing or the text.
  • Moreover, it must be mentioned that while a footnote occurs at the end or foot of the page and might somewhat reduce its aesthetics, an endnote does no such harm to the visual looks and aesthetics of the text or document page, making it look clean and nice, without the subscripted numbers by the side of the citations.
  • One of the advantages of the footnote over the endnote, however, is that while the footnote can be accessed by the readers and the students any time during their reading right at the bottom of the page, the endnote has to be reached out to by them only at the end of their reading, at the very end of the academic text or book for those additional information and extra background studies. This would also require several series of flipping through the text or book pages for each and every reference sources and information, which no doubt is a sort of disadvantage.
  • Endnotes are also a form of footnotes, which are too big to be placed at the end of the page, which would invariably make the writing look unclean and clumsy. Thus, the endnotes are sometimes an extension of the footnotes but in a much cleaner and expletive way.

The Different Ways To Include Citation Into Your Text

Defining citation

Citation is the process of acknowledging the source of a particular idea in any text. It is an important part of any academic writing these days since it is necessary for any writer to consult different articles, books and journals to support or elucidate his ideas and to show the range of his knowledge. It adds richness and depth to any given work and allows the author to estimate his work. This tool of acknowledging the author makes a text informative and unique.

The important features of citation

Citation isn’t a child’s play. It has some particular features and some rules that one needs to follow. Some of the features and characteristics are described below:

  • Citation has a few components. Any citation must include- the name of the author, the details of publication and the title. You may also include the year in which your copy of the book was published and the page numbers.
  • One must clearly mention the sources of the materials otherwise it would be difficult for the readers to find the materials from which the quotes, paraphrase, translations or summaries have been taken.
  • Even the source of ideas and information must be cited.
  • Failure to acknowledge the source would taint your credibility. You may also be accused of plagiarism.
  • Citation has two parts- a short reference to the source must be included inside the text and a detailed description of the same should be made at the end in the reference list or bibliography.
  • One should choose his sources carefully because the quality of any work depends upon the quality of texts that have been cited.
  • Citation can be used in any academic writing- – history essays, science essays, business essays or even dissertations.

In text citation- the how to guide

In case of paraphrasing, these are the following ways to cite-

  • One author- In case of a single author the author is mentioned after the paraphrase, in brackets, along with page number and publication year. Sometimes even the name of the book is added as well.
  • No author- In case the book is authored by no one, just mention the name of the book in short and add the page number.
  • Two to three authors- In a situation where there are two or more authors just use the last name of each author followed by the page number. You may include their names in the paraphrase or you may mention their names in bracket after the paraphrase.
  • Four or more authors- In such a case one may mention the surname of each and every author or you may just mention the last name of the first author and just add it all.
  • Corporate author- When the author is an organization or a corporation you can mention the name or you may use the shortened version of the name.
  • Indirect sources- When the mentioned source is used in another source then the parenthetical citation must begin with “qtd. in.”

In case of direct quotations, one must make sure that every word and punctuation is exact.Again the name of the author must be mentioned. You may also mention the page number or the name of the book. The rest of the rules are the same as the rules for citation in case of paraphrasing.

The different styles

There are a number of ways of citation. In fact, different departments or subjects use different versions. In addition, each of these versions has a proper guide book. Some of the styles of citation are:

  • The Harvard Style- This style follows the author-date referencing rule. It is widely used in humanities. This style follows a rule where one is required to give the last name of the author and the year of publication in brackets after the quote, the paraphrase, the summary or the translation. A reference list is a must and has to be maintained in an alphabetical order. This list contains detailed information about the source.
  • The APA Style- This is the usual system used in Psychology. This style is also followed by other subjects, mainly Social Sciences. The American Psychological Society publishes a book named Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association from where we get all the rules. This style requires any academic writing to be uniform and clear. Any work, which has been mentioned inside the text, must be present in the reference list and vice versa. Unlike a bibliography, the reference list must only contain the name of the works one has referred to.
  • The Chicago Style- This system of citation is used very frequently probably because it allows both author-date referencing as well as foot-notes. This style follows to different ways out of which any one can be used- the note and bibliography style and the author-date style. The Chicago Manual of Style published by The University of Chicago Press has all the required rules.
  • The Oxford Style-This widely used style is also known as documentary style and comprises of two aspects- the footnote and the reference list. In the footnote the name of the author, the book, the year of publication, etc. are mentioned. This must be mentioned again in details in the reference list.
  • The MLA Style- The Modern Language Association of America follows this style. All its rules are clearly mentioned in MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.This system is generally followed by humanities and is mostly used in English Studies.
  • The Vancouver Style-This is also called the Uniform Requirements Style. It generally follows the author-number system. It is mostly used in medical and physical science. In this style, the references and the tables must be numbered. No footnotes or bibliography is required. In addition, all the references must be mentioned under REFERENCES in numerical order, in the last page.

The whole process of citation allows any writer to acknowledge the contribution of any author or any work and makes sure no one is accused of plagiarism. Therefore, one must use this tool frequently.

Which process is followed to cite a cited source?

What is meant by direct quote?

A direct quote can be defined in a number of ways. It is basically the reporting of the exact and the specific words, phrases or sentences of any author, speaker etc that are used in the speech or writing of any other speaker or writer. It is a rather common tool in the academic world and serves several purposes at the same time. A direct quote is generally placed inside the double quotation marks. However, a direct quote does not always necessarily contain just words. It may also contain images, original thoughts, ideas etc of any creator that the current author might use in his or her work according to the relevance. Moreover, a direct quote can be of two types based on their length and quoted part. These are as follows:

  • Short Quotes: When the direct quotes are short comprising of few words, phrases or at most two to three sentences, it is called a short quote.
  • Long Quotes: When the direct quotations exceed three sentences and at times even stretches to passages or paragraphs, it is referred to as a long quote.

When and where are the direct quotes used

The direct quotes, which are no doubt one of the necessary tools in an academic writing, are used in a number of cases, of course, selectively in order to produce the maximum result. Some of the situations and reasons where direct quotes are used in a research paper or custom term paper or in any text writing by an academic writer are as follows:

  • As a textual reference and evidence: The direct quotes are often used to prove a certain textual point or to draw a textual reference for the readers as an evidence of the writer’s point.
  • To strengthen the academic writer’s argument or point: Direct quotes are at times used to support and drive home an academic writer’s argument or point of view.
  • To make a certain point more interesting and powerful: A plain text can be made interesting by including some direct quotes which would both add variety and power to the otherwise simple text.
  • As the source of a specific data: When a specific information or data is mentioned in a text, it seems rather more appropriate to directly quote from the source to make it more convincing.
  • To show how a certain figure spoke or reacted in a certain situation: It might interest the readers to know how a certain figure, be it a historical or a present one, acted or spoke on a subject or in a certain situation.
  • To re-emphasize the academic writer’s intentions: Direct quotes also serve the purpose of re emphasizing the writer’s points and opinions and thus act as a convincing vehicle for the readers.
  • To simply provide and illustrate a crucial example: A direct quote helps in the better understanding of the readers as being a form of example for the topic or point in question.
  • To say something that cannot be better said: Many a time, a direct quote act as the best language for a particular text or view when there can be no better substitute language or words to express that point or opinion.
  • For the readers’ close analysis of any topic or point: With a direct quote, the readers are at once ready for a close analysis of the particular topic and find it easy to relate to the actual topic.

Few Examples of the Proper Uses of Direct Quotes

The direct quotes are today extensively used in both the academic and the professional world, much to the ease of the academic writers, the research scholars, the professionals and at times even the high school students for their term papers or assignments. Now, a few examples would probably make the proper and effective uses of the direct quotes more clear and comprehensive. Some of those examples are as listed below:

  • “She quoted from a letter [E.B.] White wrote in 1981: ‘You might be amused to know that Strunk and White was adapted for a ballet production recently. I didn’t get to the show, but I’m sure Will Strunk, had he been alive, would have lost no time in reaching the scene.” (Jeremy Eichler, “Style Gets New Elements,” The New York Times, October 19, 2005)
  • “Never alter any quotation even in order to correct minor grammatical errors or word usage. Casual minor tongue slips may be removed by using ellipses but even that should be done with extreme caution.” (‘Quotations in the News’, The Associated Press Stylebook, 2008)
  • “In the first place, the general convention in the sciences and social sciences is that we use direct quotations as little as possible. In the humanities, direct quoting is more important–certainly where you are talking about a literary source.” (Becky Reed Rosenberg, “Using Direct Quotations,” Writing Center at the University of Washington, Bothell)

How to Use Direct Quotes Effectively

It is very important to keep in mind the proper and appropriate of any tool to create the bet effect I an academic writing, especially when it carries credits. Thus knowing the effective uses of the direct quotes is also a necessary thing. Some of the basic rules and methods where a direct quote can be used effectively are as below:

  • As or in a definition or a part of the definition
  • In order to state a law, theory, hypothesis, rule, principle, regulation etc
  • To indicate a particular term or expression coined or created by a certain figure (author, speaker etc)
  • To highlight a particularly powerful, controversial or otherwise important phrase, sentence or statement by some other figure.

One of the most crucial things to be kept in mind here is that in case of a direct quote it is always very important to indicate the page number/s with the citation or reference that might contain the direct quotation. The direct quotes can be included or incorporated in a text in primarily two main methods. These ways are as follows:

  • In order to carry on a grammatical continuation in a particular sentence.

E.g.: A variable cost “is one which varies directly with changes in the level of activity over a defined period of time.” (Peirson and Ramsay, 1996, p: 693).

  • As a definition or an example after the ‘as follows’ part of the writing.

E.g.: Haskin (1996, p. 29) offers the following definition: “empowerment is the process which allows for ethical decision making by all organisation members….”

Which process is followed to cite a cited source?

Defining Citation

Citation is a tool, which allows any academic essay writer or in fact any writer in general to acknowledge the sources from which he has borrowed some his arguments or ideas in his written material. It also allows the readers to search for the sources through the information it gives. It is used mostly to avoid plagiarism.

When to Cite?

It must be used in the following circumstances:

  • When you are quoting any author. Even if it is a single word, it is a must to mention the name of the author. The quotation must be reproduced exactly without any mistakes.
  • It must also be used when you are summarizing or paraphrasing any idea or opinion of an author.
  • Or when you are restating an expert opinion
  • You must also use it when you are translating a text.
  • Common knowledge, statistics or information which are easily available everywhere and do not vary from source to source or dictionary definition which does not vary much may not be cited.

Why to Cite?

  • Citation allows the readers to find the sources from which different ideas have been taken and verify the different ideas, facts or opinions.
  • It also allows the reader to keep an account of the different ideas from different books.
  • It adds a serious tone to any work and makes the work look sophisticated and credible.
  • It allows the writer to give due acknowledgement.
  • It accentuates the uniqueness of your work.
  • Citation gives the readers a chance to distinguish between the original ideas of the author and the borrowed ones.
  • Most importantly it avoids plagiarism.

How to Cite?

There are some rules which must be followed while citing something. They are as follows:

  • Citation must include the title of the book, the name of the author, the page number and the year of publication
  • The sources from which the quote, summary, paraphrase or translation has been taken must be mentioned with clarity. Failure to do so will cause confusion amongst the readers and they will not be able to find the source.
  • Your credibility might get ruined if you do not acknowledge the sources. You may also be accused of plagiarism, which will ruin your reputation.
  • Any source must be acknowledged twice- a short reference must be mentioned inside the text and detailed information of the source material must be mentioned again at the end of the text under bibliography or in the reference list.
  • The sources play a very crucial role because their quality will reflect the quality of the text.
  • A citation is required in every kind of writing such as, an essay, thesis, dissertations, business writing, college writing and what have you.

Rules of In text Citation

Different texts have different number and types of authors and the rules change accordingly.

In case of paraphrasing or summarizing or translation the following rules are followed:

  • One author- When there is one author his name along with the page number must be mentioned in brackets after the paraphrase or summary, also known as parenthetical citation. You may mention the name of the author in the paraphrase and add the page number in the end. The title of the book or the publication details may also be added if need be.
  • No author- In case the book is authored by no one, just mention the page number, title of the book and the year of publication inside a bracket after the summary or paraphrase.
  • Two or three writers- If the book is authored by two to three people just mention their last names and add the page number. Again, their names may be included in the summary or translation or you may put them in a bracket and place it right at the end of the summarized or translated part.
  • Corporate author- Where the author is an organization or a corporation, mention its name in brackets or you may include it in the text itself. You may use the full name or the shortened version of the name.
  • Indirect sources- In a situation where the mentioned source is taken from another source, it is a must to begin the parenthetical citation with “qtd.in.”

In case of quotation, the quotes must be correct and exact. Like in a paraphrase the name of the author along with the title, page number and publication details must be mentioned in case of a quotation. The rest of the rules are the same as above.

Different Citation Styles

Citation styles vary from subject to subject and every style has its own rule. Some of them are discussed below:

  • The APA Style- This style is founded by the American Psychological Society and follows the rules mentioned in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This style is used in Social Science, Psychology, Business, and Sociology etc. The source name must be mentioned twice. Once inside the text, after the quote or summary, in brackets which must contain the name of the author and the year of publication and a detailed citation must be present in the References section.
  • The MLA Style- This is the style of the Modern Literary Association. This is mostly used in English studies and language. Its guidelines are found in MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. It has two components- a parenthetical citation and a more detailed reference to the source place under Works Cited. The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to direct the reader to the complete citation. Work Cited is a list where all the references are placed in an alphabetical order.
  • The Chicago Style- It is a very commonly used style. It originated in the Chicago University. This style follows two different systems- the author- date style and the note-bibliography system. In the author date system the name of the author and the publication details are mentioned in the parenthetical citation, which then directs the reader to the reference list or bibliography in the end. While in the note-bibliography style the text is marked by a subscript number which then points the reader towards a note, footnote or an endnote. The details of the source are then given in the bibliography in an alphabetical order.

How Do I Write a Research Paper?

What is a research paper?

A research paper is a kind of an elaborate essay or a type of an academic writing that allows you to research and then present your own ideas and opinions regarding a particular argument or a topic. It is not just an assemblage of different ideas borrowed from different sources crammed in a paper. It must present your new and original argument backed by relevant ideas from other sources. It involves a great deal of research and hence the name.

There can be two types of research papers:

  • Argumentative research paper: In this paper, one needs to choose a debatable topic. The writer must mention his stance in the very beginning of the paper itself. And throughout the course of the paper he must persuade the reader using his own arguments as well borrowed ones. There is no middle way, if you choose this style then you have to take one side and be consistent about it. It has three important steps that every academic writer must follow and they are:
  1. Give a general picture of your topic and present your arguments.
  2. Then explain your stance in a very compelling and convincing manner.
  3. Take ample support from different sources to make your point clear.
  4. Do not forget to discuss the opposing opinions as well. This will only help you to compel the readers.
  • Analytical research paper: This paper generally begins with a question. The writer must then critically analyse, interpret the question, and present his fresh opinion in the end. Unlike the previous kind, there is no need to persuade the reader; just presenting a new outlook is enough. Things one must mention while writing an analytical research paper are:
  1. If you ask a question your answer should be objective you cannot let your preference or thoughts colour your paper.
  2. Evaluate thoroughly and analyse properly and then conclude your paper. Make sure the facts are 100% correct.
  3. Be critical and think seriously about your topic.

How should a research paper be?

There are a few features, which must be present in every research paper.

  • Truthful- a research paper must contain facts and only facts. No fictitious information must be used while writing a research paper.
  • Empirical- any idea you incorporate must be based on facts that you have seen and known.
  • Objective-objectivity is a must because it lends the paper a more scholarly tone.
  • Original- originality is important and the way any topic is dealt with should be new and different.
  • Specific- one shouldn’t ramble too much while writing a research paper. Talk about only those things that matter.
  • Clear- it must not be too complex so that it is barely understandable.
  • Well organized- haphazardly scattering information will hamper with the clarity and hence is not advisable.
  • Properly cited- a research paper must have all the sources properly cited both within the text as well as in the bibliography or the reference list.
  • Complete- a research needs a proper conclusion. It mustn’t end abruptly.

Parts of a research paper

The following parts constitute a research paper :

  • Title: Title is a very important aspect of a research paper since many people judge a paper by its title. It should describe the paper very well at the same time it should be appealing.
  • Abstract: It gives a short and crisp summary of your paper. Thought added in the beginning it should be written in the end.
  • Introduction: Give a general introduction of your research paper and show why your topic is important or worthwhile. Then mention the purpose of your paper and briefly describe how you propose to go about the research. Do not forget to give details about the research background. This part must also include RESEARCH QUESTION, RATIONALE and the THESIS STATEMENT.
  • Definition of terms: Describe the acronyms phrases and words and explain how they have been used to suit the context.
  • Review of the literature: This part contains a detailed tabulation of the books relevant to the topic you are researching. First, mention all the available literature on the topic. Further mention how your research is adding to and expanding on the literature that is already present. This part highlights the uniqueness of your work.
  • Delimitations: Here you may explain the limits that you have put in your research. This includes explaining- things that have not been done, literature that has not been analysed or research processes that haven’t been used.
  • Analysis and Substantiation- This forms the body of the research paper. Analyse and interpret the data, which is available, use the available material to back your thoughts and pay attention to all the Ws.
  • Methodology: Describe the different methods that you have employed to achieve you aim.
  • Results: This portion includes the details of the results you have achieved after your research. It may include graphs or tables. It may also include a more detailed discussion.
  • Discussion: Discuss your paper; show how it is related to previous papers, also mention if there is any further scope of study, etc.
  • References: This part includes the bibliography or the reference list. In this portion, the sources that have been referred to in the text are cited in either an alphabetical order or a numerical order. It is a very important part, as it makes sure that you are not accused of plagiarism.

Importance of research papers

Research papers are significant for the writer as well as the subject.

  • Allows you to express your understanding of a field or a topic.
  • It allows you to present your ideas and observations in a new and different light.
  • It helps you to teach better and more effectively. Since researching about things increase your knowledge.
  • It helps you to widen the avenues of a field by exploring the uncharted regions.
  • Sometimes when the topic is something revolutionary then it changes the course of a particular subject, it changes the different viewpoints.
  • Research makes a person think critically.

How to Write a Research Paper?

What is a research paper?

Research papers are basically academic writings of a bit higher level, in any field of studies. They are generally longer than the custom term papers or the essays and are required for the presentation of any observation or inference. A research paper is also required for the exploration and identification of any technical, scientific or a social issue. The basic rules are same as that of writing a general essay but certainly with some additional inputs.

Normally a research paper that is more commonly seen as a form of assignment or a presentation of ideas, is basically an extension of the study program in the university level. It primarily includes a thorough and broad study and research on the topic with its related points and, of course, a clear perspective and creative writing style with an interesting pattern. Therefore, proper investigation and information on a given topic from any source possible under the sky, focusing on the important and useful points and then coming out with an innovative pattern and accurate and proper citations and references all on the part of the academic writer, is probably the key to writing an effective and interesting research paper.

Format for writing a typical research paper

A research paper is known to serve several purposes all at the same time. A typical research paper includes a basic format of writing and some important general rules and regulations that are supposed to be followed although there are certain variations. One of the primary aims of a research paper, apart from presenting and introducing to the readers in the academic world the academic writer’s own ideas, conclusions, views and study results, is also to allow to enlighten and thus enrich people on certain subjects and topics. It also helps in advancing a given or mentioned concept or theory in that particular stream or field of academy and creating an impression of the academic writer on his or her readers’ minds. Thus, the form of a research paper is very vital to the point that it has to reach out to a large number of readers and ensure their proper understanding of the research topic. The general research paper writing format, therefore, includes the following points:

  • Title Page: Zero in on a catchy title and mention the names and addresses of all the authors, if multiple. It generally requires one single sheet.
  • Introduction: It should not exceed two pages and must include the significance of the study and the experimental design.
  • Materials and Methods: Although there are no officially specific page limit, still it is always good to keep it concise. The sections should be reported under separate subheadings.
  • Results: The page limit depends on the number of data and reports. However, it should be precise and made in tables, charts and figures.
  • Discussions: The official limit is maximum five pages and thus economy of words is an essential tool here. The content must be typed and double-spaced.
  • Literary or academic citations: It is important to document and mention every source of information for the research paper in alphabetical order to form a good image and impression. If there are no such references or citations made, even that too needs to be mentioned.

Points to note while writing a research paper

Writing a research paper is hardly an easy task although it might become somewhat manageable once an academic writer has got a good hold of the important and essential points that are necessary to writing a proper and effective research paper. Before starting to write the academic paper it is, therefore, always vital to remember those tips and use them wittily in one’s academic writing. Those tips or points are as listed below:

  • It is necessary to follow a standard and uniform writing style and font like Arial, Times, Calibri etc.
  • Each section must start on a whole new page or otherwise it looks clumsy.
  • The pages must be numbered consecutively. This is a very common mistake and is often neglected.
  • The research paper must not exceed the recommended page limits including each section.
  • A figure table has to be confined to a single page and should never continue to the next page.
  • A text heading at the end of a given page with the body on the next page is an absolute no.
  • The first line of each para must be indented.
  • Informal wordings, superfluous facts, slang or jargon terms and offending images must be avoided.
  • Using the present tense for the stating facts is always advisable.
  • Presenting the argument in a logical order and manner is important
  • Making separate paragraphs for each point makes a writing look compact and orderly.

Steps to follow while writing a research paper

Writing a proper and well-researched research paper is an important aspect of an academic writer’s career and it should be given the adequate thought and significance. Rushing into a topic and beginning to write on it without a proper and thorough background study, may quite often than not result in a bad research paper that provides several chances of loopholes. In fact, such incidents are not quite uncommon in the academic field. In order to avoid such mishaps, the following steps can be followed for the best results:

  • Create a list of topics you want to do.
  • Focus mainly on what you love.
  • Feel free to take advices from others.
  • Try to stay as much original as possible.
  • Try to choose an unusual or offbeat topic.
  • Never hesitate to make last minute changes in choosing your topic.
  • Begin your research at the grass root level.
  • Try to move gradually from your known to the unknown areas and aspects.
  • Try to look for the empirical researches.
  • A visit to the library on a regular basis is a must.
  • A thorough online research is also very helpful and essential.
  • Try to incorporate various academic databases.
  • Try to make your writing creative and interesting.
  • Then make proper annotations and organize the writing pattern.
  • Zero in on the target readers and the goal of your research paper.
  • Jot down your main points and finalize your draft.

How Does the Study of Data Collection Methods Differ From Methodology?


What is study of data collection?

Studying data collection basically means studying the process of sampling. Sampling means selecting a certain subset from the total population to analyse because the whole population is difficult to study. Sampling can be either probability or non-probability. In the probability, there is a non-zero probability of every individual of the population of being selected while in the non-probability sampling people are selected in a non-random manner.

Sampling- The different ways

There are numerous ways to study data collection or the sampling methods.

  • Random sampling- this is a very pure process of sampling because in this process every individual has a known and equal chance of getting selected. This is very helpful in case of a huge population.
  • Systematic sampling- this can be used in place of Random sampling. It is also known as the Nth name selection process. When a sample size is selected every Nth record is selected from it. This method is as good as Random sampling and as effective. The best thing about this method is that it is very simple and easy to try. It can be used for choosing select number of files from computer.
  • Stratified sampling- it is a very effective method as it reduces the sampling error to a large extent and hence can be chosen over Random sampling method. In this process all the relevant stratums in a population are selected. Then via Random, sampling subjects from those stratums are selected. Stratum is a group of people in a population, which share at least one common characteristic.
  • Convenience sampling- mainly used in exploratory research. In this case a sample is selected because it is convenient. The whole process is inexpensive and can be used for preliminary research efforts.
  • Judgment sampling- this is a very common non-probability method. The academic writer selects the sample on the basis of his judgement. But the academic essay writer must make sure the sample is chosen wisely and is truly representative of the whole population.
  • Quota sampling- it is similar to Stratified sampling but belongs to non-probability method. The stratums are selected but the subjects are chosen on the basis of Convenience sampling or Judgement sampling unlike Stratified sampling where the subjects are chosen on the basis of Random sampling.
  • Snowball sampling- this is a very special non-probability method and used only when the desired sample character is not common.

These are the sampling methods, which can be studied during a research work. But choosing which sampling method is suitable for your research can be a daunting task since it can do much to spoil your research work.

What is methodology?

Methodology usually refers to which sampling should you choose. As it has already been referred to earlier, any research work is open to a number of sampling methods.

  • Probability methods: one of the best sampling methods.

o Simple random sampling- the whole population is available.

o Stratified sampling- Random sampling done within selected stratum.

o Systematic sampling- when a number of people representative of the population are available.

o Cluster sampling- in a situation where the population groups are usually separated.

  • Quota methods: you get to choose the number of people you will be sampling.

o Quota sampling- though you get to choose from the whole population but you can only take as many as you require.

o Proportionate quota sampling- you choose according to the population distribution amongst different groups. Very effective when you are dealing with minority.

o Non-proportionate quota sampling- you only choose the minimum amount of people from every group.

  • Selective methods: it is helpful when it comes to selective or target groups.

o Purposive sampling- studying a group of people on the basis of intent.

o Expert sampling- helpful when you need experts.

o Snowball sampling- very useful when you want similar subjects.

o Modal instance sampling- focuses on ‘typical’ people and hence useful when you are dealing with them. Since the normal methods tend to overlook them.

o Diversity sampling- it works when you want to go for the differences.

  • Convenience methods: simple, effective yet not so time consuming.

o Snowball sampling- you need similar subjects.

o Convenience sampling- choosing the subject according to convenience.

o Judgment sampling- you get to judge and choose the sample population.

  • Ethnographic methods: usually good for field-based observations:

o Selective sampling- choose what you think is right but focus must be given to some particular groups or locations or even subjects; whatever your research work demands.

o Theoretical sampling- you use this sampling method to test any theory, which you want to include in your research work.

o Convenience sampling- choosing subjects according to convenience.

o Judgment sampling- you get to be the judge of what is best for your research work and then select the sample population accordingly.

Choosing the right method

Choosing the method of sampling which will be perfect for your research can be difficult since each method of sampling serves a particular purpose. The best sampling method is the one, which will help you meet the goals of your research work.

  • The goals: if you do not know the goals of your research work then you cannot choose the most effective sampling methods. So list the goals and choose accordingly. Usually every research work has to basic goals- maximum precision and minimum budget. If your research work has any other goals then list them.
  • Sampling methods: go through all the sampling methods. This way you will get acquainted with all the sampling methods which will enable you to judge the different methods. Make a list of all the cost effective methods and another list of those sampling methods that are effective and precise. You can make another list according to your requirements.
  • Test: after you are done making the list of probable sampling methods, test their ability to serve your purpose. This is important because in this step, you will get to know which method is effective and to what extent.
  • The final step is to choose the best method.

Primary and Secondary Methodology

All you need to know about primary and secondary methodology!

Every procedure requires to be done using specific methodologies. The methods to be used while carrying out the procedure must be such that it smoothens the procedure, making it efficient consequently producing desired results.These results have to be used by students while writing their term papers or research essay. While carrying out any sort of academic research, two types of methodologies should be followed. They are:

  • Primary research methodology: The primary research is done basicallyby analysing primary data. This method involves the account of notes and collected information by the person undertaking the research. The data collected depends on the research carried out originally by the student or researcher. The methods opted while undertaking primary research are gathering answers through questionnaires and conducting interviews over telephone or the internet while conducting market research. Observations are noted while carrying out scientific research. This method is applied in fields like academic research, competitive intelligence, scientific research and market research.
  • Secondary research methodology: This method involves the procedure of analysing and interpreting data collected via primary research. The researcher gathers information from various sources and uses the various data and information to make justified conclusions about a subject. For secondary methodology to be efficient, it is necessary that the primary research be effective. When primary research is done, then a lot of extra information is often gathered, which can be saved to be used for later writing purposes or research. No information collected should be absolutely discarded, as it would save time and effort if the information is already gathered.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary research?

  • Advantages:
  1. It is possible for the researcher to concentrate on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the subject under research.
  2. The researcher knows the needs and carries out the research in such a manner that it is specific in nature and no irrelevant information is gathered.
  3. Depending on the information collected through this research, the researcher can estimate the time required for the experiment and the complete research. The researcher will also be able to set the goal and size of the experiment even more specifically. At this point of time, the researcher is in full control of the research methods being carried out.
  • Disadvantages:
  1. Cost of primary research is found to be high. A lot of investment in doing the groundwork as it involves a lot of samples. The student or researcher has to take in account all possibilities and carry out tests on all of them. Equipment costs also add up.
  2. The time taken to carry out primary research is also longer as the subjects under consideration are large in number. The primary research is done only after an organised research plan regarding the development of the project is properly executed.
  3. Some essential data or equipment might not be readily available. It might also be that the response time from subjects or observations to be taken from conducted experiments require a lot of time. This hampers the pace of the primary research. Sometimes the primary data collected becomes invalid because it no longer holds true by the end of the research due to the total time taken for the research.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of secondary research?

  • Advantages:
  1. Secondary data is found in books, journals and vastly on the internet. Search engines have been optimised efficiently to give you all the information within a moment. Secondary data collection thus takes very less time.
  2. Accessibility to data of all types is very convenient. Libraries are a great help while gathering information from documents. But nothing helps more than the internet that serves all the purposes. But care has to be taken so that the information collected or conclusions drawn are based on facts that are valid.
  3. The method is cheap as one can analyse larger sets of data without incurring any additional cost. The compilation of larger data does not require greater cost unlike gathering of larger amount of data.
  4. Secondary research can be done easily by collaborating with researchers, professors from all over the world. Discussions, suggestions and analysis of gathered data can be obtained by communicating with them easily. Thus, longitudinal and international studies becomes a very feasible option when secondary research is taken into consideration.
  5. From the various information gathered, it is easy for the researchers to develop new insights. This gives potential for the researchers to give an entire new dimension to the research. Confirmation of gathered data or previously made conclusions is also an essential procedure while conducting research that is fulfilled while undertaking secondary research methodology.
  • Disadvantages:
  1. The entire purpose of secondary research becomes a failure if the data collected is invalid. The methods are not designed to check the validity of the data. Hence, this acts a major disadvantage.
  2. The quality of analysis depends on the researcher. There is no way to control the quality. It has to be trusted that appointed researcher or academic writer will put in his best while analysing and putting down the gathered information.

The collaboration and efficient amalgamation of primary and secondary research helps a writer to make a good research paper. While writing a research paper or any document compiling the data of the primary and secondary research, the writer has to keep in mind the format that he or she has to abide by. The methods, experiments that have been conducted have to be mentioned in detail. The conclusions and the reasons for the conclusions have to be specified in a justified manner. The facts to be mentioned should be verified before stating them in any document that will be up for publishing. The information has to be genuine,otherwise the impression of the researcher or the student is hampered greatly.Research essayand term papers are very important part of the curriculum of a student pursuing higher education. Therefore, while writing a research paper and conducting research for that, he/she should keep the above stated facts in mind. The advantages and disadvantages of the methodologies should be kept in mind while undertaking research.

Literature Review Dissertation

Everyone must be familiar with the term ‘Literature Review’ but only a few know about it application in a concrete manner. So, here we are going to provide a general insight about the topic as well as its application in the field of studies and research work.

What is Literature Review?

A literature review is deep root analysis about any particular topic, which has been accredited by scholars, or researchers of the concerning field of study.

Literature review can manifest itself in the form of ‘Critical Appreciation’, which can aid in essay writing service for the students. It can also aid in the service of thesis writing which benefits the research works. In the terms of financial management, it proves to be valuable for marketing dissertation for the business tycoons to achieve their targeted goals.

Again, it must be kept in mind that a Literature review is not:

  • A gist of the entire work without any critical views.
  • A bibliography of the work.

The call for Review:

Any literature review proves to be a boon in academic as well as marketing field of work for the following reasons:

  • For ensuring a clear cut concept for understanding the topic lucidly.
  • Targeting for the strategic points of work.
  • For producing facsimile results in the field of research like thesis writing.
  • Ensuring a further detailed investigation about the concerned works.
  • Procuring critical reviews for the benefits of students for essay writing
  • To bridge the research gap between previous and new research works.

Literature review opens a vast array of critical reviews and review works for the students – be they in college or school. A work, which has been researched upon by any scholar or academic writer and has gained acclamation worldwide, is a boon for the students. They serve as a reference to highlight ‘meanings’ well hidden between the lines of the original work.

For undergraduates, they are a conceptual framework of the literature works – especially for the Sonnets and Ballads. While they can serve valuable information about any related topic, they can be mind-boggling, since every scholar performing literature reviews has their own standpoint and view to express about a particular line or phrase.

The Fields of Research:

Literature reviews possess a significant importance in the field of research which when subjected to critical appreciation illuminates different aspects revealed by different scholars. The types of literature review that can be conducted for research works or thesis writing are as follows:

  • Argumentative Review – This type of literature review encompasses its points based on philosophical views or interpretive assumptions, whose views should always contradict with the pre-existing research works. Argumentative review can be of great importance in order to reveal the truth existing between the lines of the works. However, the argumentative reviews shouldn’t be judgmental or biased, which might cause an upheaval among the laureates.
  • Integrative Review – Integrative review goes a long way for the research works, especially for thesis writing for the graduate students. Integrative reviews are done with the sole aim to solidify the previous research works related to literatures, by producing an almost facsimile work. However, the review shouldn’t be a complete replica of the existing works.
  • Historical Review – Historical reviews are done in quest of hidden information, which once might have been misinterpreted. It focuses from the origin of any works, and traces all the way through its evolution till the current works and research. Historical reviews pave the pathway for future research works of the students and researchers.
  • Theoretical Review – Theoretical reviews are done with the sole intention of agglomerating of the facts, information, concepts and sometimes hypothesis as well. Theoretical reviews helps to bridge the gap between the existing theories as well as the present found works and thus, it concretes the generation gap between different works. Theoretical reviews often serve as a backbone to the existing hypothesis, thus paving the way for the future research works in the practical fields.
  • Systematic Review– This type of review is done with the intention of methodical collection of information, then employing a research operation for collecting of valid data and finally undergoing a rigorous method for analyzing it. Research writing is highly dependent on systematic collection of data and therefore its one of the most valued research work.
  • Methodical Review – Methodical review consists of two different levels of research – qualitative research and quantitative research. The collection of data comes from the array of previously existing information as well as conceptual works to practical writings. It helps to create a formative theoretical underpinning of research, and assist in opening multiple paths for further research operations.

The Importance of Research:

Any Literature review work which is subjected to the field of research pertaining to academic or marketing, provide a great deal of importance to since it gives the insight, and perhaps reveals the hidden truths about it – which can’t be deciphered only by reading or analyzing it.

Any Literature review can benefit the students by providing them a platform to raise some questions like “How can this happen?”, “Why is this happening?” etc. and thus it opens the gateway for research such as descriptive, analytic, co relational. With this tool, research works ensures new foundation by allowing research workers to think beyond the previous works, and thus, scholars can look at the topic with a new perspective.

Thesis writing is benefitted with the work help of research. It provides a new affirmative ground for the work they’re doing – reveals the strength and weakness about their concerned work. Research workers can use the paraphrases to consolidate their viewpoint – thereby keeping a similarity with the original works.

Research work is done in the field of marketing dissertation in order to strengthen industry – customer relationship. More research works leads to the transformation of the business, in order to keep pace with the radical change of the society. Research works is conducted upon considering the importance key point such as

  • Potential quality.
  • Demand quality.
  • Output quality.

Research work is an ever changing process, and its demands are continually growing for providing better reviews to the people.

Therefore, all the above-mentioned discussions can now be meaningful enough to provide a brief idea about the need of Literature works review and its research works.

Multi-method approach or mixed methodology for Data Collection

The Demand of Multi-methodology for Work

Multi-methodology or the multi-approach of data collection is basically the system of collection of data and information, subjected to any field of interest, regardless of the source of origin of data. The system of data collection can of any possible source with their analysis ranging from quantitative to qualitative approach. Multiple method approaches are mainly used for the purpose of academic essay writing service, coursework help, paper writing help etc.

This poly research approach was revolutionized since 1980’s and it has been gaining popularity ever since.

The primary goal of this concept is to tact any complex situations tactfully and skillfully in order to save Time and Labor skill. In the 21st century, where life is advancing at a progressively accelerating rate, Time is a crucial issue. So, processing of data and making the work ready by researching from different sources provide the ease and benefit of work. Perhaps this is the reason why people are more inclined to adopt this methodology of work.

Primary Benefits:

The prime benefits of mixed approach of compilation of data and its analysis can be useful in different spheres of work. Some of the following benefits are listed below as:

  • Increases authority of work – Hiring mixed methodology of data collection is useful since it validates your work with a strong standpoint. The examiners will get less scope for questioning about the work. In the case of paper writing services, different sources of data provides the worker while collecting data from multiple sources can state down his report by giving the entire reference source, so it reduces complexity analysis.
  • Better data gathering – A same topic maybe discussed at different sources; however, there are possibilities of having some minuscule information which might not be mentioned at other sources. This might be beneficial in the case of academic essay writing, which provides the writer the flexibility of gathering different data concerning a particular topic – thus making his work better than the others do.
  • Enhances Readability – Multiple data collection ensures that reader gets to have a lucid view of what is being stated in the work of the writer. Quantitative analysis shows how much the writer has deeply stated about their research work and qualitative analysis measures how much easily and clearly, the writer has stated about their work.
  • Provides satisfaction – Another prime benefit of multiple data collection is that it provides ‘best of both world’ for everyone. This is highly useful for academic paper writing, where the writer can write ‘for’ and ‘against’ concerning any particular topic, thereby saves oneself from the hands of criticism and biased writing.
  • Saves time – It is by far, the biggest advantage, and it is a big boon for students for their coursework help. Multiple data sources saves time for the students in completion of their homework, thus allowing them to work more in less time.
  • Easy detection – Different sources of data provides any examiner the chances to find any flaws regarding any course of work. It helps the user to get better, clear and accurate data of the relevant work, and thereby eliminates all the erroneous results.

The Hour of Need of Mixed Methodology:

The concept of mixed-methodology is highly recognized in the modern society for the sole 2 purposes which are stated as follows:

  • Research Work – Mixed methodology is mainly used for the research work and investigation when situation demands. Again, here two things are kept in mind – Quantitative approach, while highlights about the multiple perspectives and core research for complete understanding about a question or any research work. This trick is used mainly for finishing coursework – which allows the students to have a detailed discussion regarding any question of their subjects.
  • Simple reasoning – This provides any person a valid platform to talk about in case of group discussions or appearing for reasoning aptitude test, where the extensive knowledge of the person is being tested upon. Liberal views and an array of data from different sources is better when it comes to such situations.

The methodical challenges faced during multi-method approach of data collection:

While mixed methodology is a boon for gathering data at an advanced rate, there are always some challenges faced by any person when it comes to practical approach of doing it. Here are a few points that make the work challenging:

  • Targeted resources – Often, the targeted resources of work may be varied with false misleading information, which can lead to negative consequences. Therefore, one must really look only to that information which are relevant to their field of work, and that should go with the present changes of the society. For example – providing an obsolete data in case of paper writing might be misleading to the reader since it does not go with the modern day methodology.
  • Lack of Cooperation – While doing multi methodology process of data collection, situations may arise where people need to work as a team. In such situations, clashes can arise on the ground of views regarding information. In addition, there might be chances of arguments regarding the assessment and arrangement of data as well as various approach of writing.
  • Analytical interpretations – Academic paper writing calls for production of hypothesis paper work. However, analytical interpretations can determine the conflict of the concurrent data with the old data, thereby, creating an obstacle, and also may cause spoofing of the original data. This can however be resolved by preventing reproduction of the work.

Therefore, from all the discussion, it is apparent that multi methodology contributes to gain informative resources within a quick time period. The application of this new methodology can give extraordinary achievements as it gives a broad view of any data. This mixed method study of data collection helps to design quantitative as well qualitative analysis of the research work. It also helps to spread data, and provides a source to learn new skills perhaps generate new ideas as well.