An Ideal Dissertation Paper emerges as an Important Aspect for Academic Projects

Whether for graduation level or for Master’s level, preparing proper dissertation paper is a challenge for the students. If the papers are for PhD students, then the stakes are high. Now it is not possible for all to procure enough knowledge and skill to write excellent papers immediately after being admitted to course. On the other hand, the university courses hardly wait for the students’ preparations. Therefore, it is essential to take proper measures before actually entering the courses.

For each and every semester the students are pushed to make papers. These assignments are the actual expositions of their expertise in specific fields. No matter how intricate and complicated the topics are, the students are expected to make proper analysis of them, failing which his grade would be lower. Therefore, the student has to learn first what to include in a dissertation.

What should be included in dissertation?

First and foremost duty of the dissertation writer is to ensure that he presents a new idea backed up by proper thesis. His objective should be convincing the readers. For that, he might have to work on real life examples with which the reader can identify his own matters. With a substantial writing based on facts and an intact thesis, it is possible to attract reader’s attention. The thesis should be coherent and the binding twine to assemble all the facts and present a specific point of view.

Proper Expansion of the Texts:

A clear, intelligent and witty text is always a good-to-read piece for the assignment checkers. The textual discussions should be made through adequate examples and data supports. When working with a research based text, the student has to be careful. He has to think about all the possible aspects of discussion. This would help him to work with additional subjects or topics to ensure no stone is unturned.

Proper Synchronization of the Theory and the Examples:

Contextualizing the theory-based ideas is the final objective for the dissertation writer. If proper balance between the idea and the supporting evidences are not made, then the reader will eventually get bored. Therefore, the writer has to start the thesis after initial introduction in the second or the third page only. Alongside, mentioning of supporting documents and examples is mandatory. At the middle of the paper, writers generally commit the grilling task of making proper analysis to support his point of view of the subject. The concluding part is the hardest where the dissertation writer has to arrange these interconnected facts and figures to help the reader reach a decision.

Taking Proper Initiative:

To write a good dissertation a student may get a lot of advisors, but it would be stupidity to depend on them entirely. It is essential that the student takes his own burden of collecting books, reading them, collating evidences and documents and applying them in the papers. Only Proper initiative and the courage to write out private opinions can ensure a properly written dissertation paper.

How Does the Study of Data Collection Methods Differ From Methodology?


What is study of data collection?

Studying data collection basically means studying the process of sampling. Sampling means selecting a certain subset from the total population to analyse because the whole population is difficult to study. Sampling can be either probability or non-probability. In the probability, there is a non-zero probability of every individual of the population of being selected while in the non-probability sampling people are selected in a non-random manner.

Sampling- The different ways

There are numerous ways to study data collection or the sampling methods.

  • Random sampling- this is a very pure process of sampling because in this process every individual has a known and equal chance of getting selected. This is very helpful in case of a huge population.
  • Systematic sampling- this can be used in place of Random sampling. It is also known as the Nth name selection process. When a sample size is selected every Nth record is selected from it. This method is as good as Random sampling and as effective. The best thing about this method is that it is very simple and easy to try. It can be used for choosing select number of files from computer.
  • Stratified sampling- it is a very effective method as it reduces the sampling error to a large extent and hence can be chosen over Random sampling method. In this process all the relevant stratums in a population are selected. Then via Random, sampling subjects from those stratums are selected. Stratum is a group of people in a population, which share at least one common characteristic.
  • Convenience sampling- mainly used in exploratory research. In this case a sample is selected because it is convenient. The whole process is inexpensive and can be used for preliminary research efforts.
  • Judgment sampling- this is a very common non-probability method. The academic writer selects the sample on the basis of his judgement. But the academic essay writer must make sure the sample is chosen wisely and is truly representative of the whole population.
  • Quota sampling- it is similar to Stratified sampling but belongs to non-probability method. The stratums are selected but the subjects are chosen on the basis of Convenience sampling or Judgement sampling unlike Stratified sampling where the subjects are chosen on the basis of Random sampling.
  • Snowball sampling- this is a very special non-probability method and used only when the desired sample character is not common.

These are the sampling methods, which can be studied during a research work. But choosing which sampling method is suitable for your research can be a daunting task since it can do much to spoil your research work.

What is methodology?

Methodology usually refers to which sampling should you choose. As it has already been referred to earlier, any research work is open to a number of sampling methods.

  • Probability methods: one of the best sampling methods.

o Simple random sampling- the whole population is available.

o Stratified sampling- Random sampling done within selected stratum.

o Systematic sampling- when a number of people representative of the population are available.

o Cluster sampling- in a situation where the population groups are usually separated.

  • Quota methods: you get to choose the number of people you will be sampling.

o Quota sampling- though you get to choose from the whole population but you can only take as many as you require.

o Proportionate quota sampling- you choose according to the population distribution amongst different groups. Very effective when you are dealing with minority.

o Non-proportionate quota sampling- you only choose the minimum amount of people from every group.

  • Selective methods: it is helpful when it comes to selective or target groups.

o Purposive sampling- studying a group of people on the basis of intent.

o Expert sampling- helpful when you need experts.

o Snowball sampling- very useful when you want similar subjects.

o Modal instance sampling- focuses on ‘typical’ people and hence useful when you are dealing with them. Since the normal methods tend to overlook them.

o Diversity sampling- it works when you want to go for the differences.

  • Convenience methods: simple, effective yet not so time consuming.

o Snowball sampling- you need similar subjects.

o Convenience sampling- choosing the subject according to convenience.

o Judgment sampling- you get to judge and choose the sample population.

  • Ethnographic methods: usually good for field-based observations:

o Selective sampling- choose what you think is right but focus must be given to some particular groups or locations or even subjects; whatever your research work demands.

o Theoretical sampling- you use this sampling method to test any theory, which you want to include in your research work.

o Convenience sampling- choosing subjects according to convenience.

o Judgment sampling- you get to be the judge of what is best for your research work and then select the sample population accordingly.

Choosing the right method

Choosing the method of sampling which will be perfect for your research can be difficult since each method of sampling serves a particular purpose. The best sampling method is the one, which will help you meet the goals of your research work.

  • The goals: if you do not know the goals of your research work then you cannot choose the most effective sampling methods. So list the goals and choose accordingly. Usually every research work has to basic goals- maximum precision and minimum budget. If your research work has any other goals then list them.
  • Sampling methods: go through all the sampling methods. This way you will get acquainted with all the sampling methods which will enable you to judge the different methods. Make a list of all the cost effective methods and another list of those sampling methods that are effective and precise. You can make another list according to your requirements.
  • Test: after you are done making the list of probable sampling methods, test their ability to serve your purpose. This is important because in this step, you will get to know which method is effective and to what extent.
  • The final step is to choose the best method.

Primary and Secondary Methodology

All you need to know about primary and secondary methodology!

Every procedure requires to be done using specific methodologies. The methods to be used while carrying out the procedure must be such that it smoothens the procedure, making it efficient consequently producing desired results.These results have to be used by students while writing their term papers or research essay. While carrying out any sort of academic research, two types of methodologies should be followed. They are:

  • Primary research methodology: The primary research is done basicallyby analysing primary data. This method involves the account of notes and collected information by the person undertaking the research. The data collected depends on the research carried out originally by the student or researcher. The methods opted while undertaking primary research are gathering answers through questionnaires and conducting interviews over telephone or the internet while conducting market research. Observations are noted while carrying out scientific research. This method is applied in fields like academic research, competitive intelligence, scientific research and market research.
  • Secondary research methodology: This method involves the procedure of analysing and interpreting data collected via primary research. The researcher gathers information from various sources and uses the various data and information to make justified conclusions about a subject. For secondary methodology to be efficient, it is necessary that the primary research be effective. When primary research is done, then a lot of extra information is often gathered, which can be saved to be used for later writing purposes or research. No information collected should be absolutely discarded, as it would save time and effort if the information is already gathered.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary research?

  • Advantages:
  1. It is possible for the researcher to concentrate on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the subject under research.
  2. The researcher knows the needs and carries out the research in such a manner that it is specific in nature and no irrelevant information is gathered.
  3. Depending on the information collected through this research, the researcher can estimate the time required for the experiment and the complete research. The researcher will also be able to set the goal and size of the experiment even more specifically. At this point of time, the researcher is in full control of the research methods being carried out.
  • Disadvantages:
  1. Cost of primary research is found to be high. A lot of investment in doing the groundwork as it involves a lot of samples. The student or researcher has to take in account all possibilities and carry out tests on all of them. Equipment costs also add up.
  2. The time taken to carry out primary research is also longer as the subjects under consideration are large in number. The primary research is done only after an organised research plan regarding the development of the project is properly executed.
  3. Some essential data or equipment might not be readily available. It might also be that the response time from subjects or observations to be taken from conducted experiments require a lot of time. This hampers the pace of the primary research. Sometimes the primary data collected becomes invalid because it no longer holds true by the end of the research due to the total time taken for the research.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of secondary research?

  • Advantages:
  1. Secondary data is found in books, journals and vastly on the internet. Search engines have been optimised efficiently to give you all the information within a moment. Secondary data collection thus takes very less time.
  2. Accessibility to data of all types is very convenient. Libraries are a great help while gathering information from documents. But nothing helps more than the internet that serves all the purposes. But care has to be taken so that the information collected or conclusions drawn are based on facts that are valid.
  3. The method is cheap as one can analyse larger sets of data without incurring any additional cost. The compilation of larger data does not require greater cost unlike gathering of larger amount of data.
  4. Secondary research can be done easily by collaborating with researchers, professors from all over the world. Discussions, suggestions and analysis of gathered data can be obtained by communicating with them easily. Thus, longitudinal and international studies becomes a very feasible option when secondary research is taken into consideration.
  5. From the various information gathered, it is easy for the researchers to develop new insights. This gives potential for the researchers to give an entire new dimension to the research. Confirmation of gathered data or previously made conclusions is also an essential procedure while conducting research that is fulfilled while undertaking secondary research methodology.
  • Disadvantages:
  1. The entire purpose of secondary research becomes a failure if the data collected is invalid. The methods are not designed to check the validity of the data. Hence, this acts a major disadvantage.
  2. The quality of analysis depends on the researcher. There is no way to control the quality. It has to be trusted that appointed researcher or academic writer will put in his best while analysing and putting down the gathered information.

The collaboration and efficient amalgamation of primary and secondary research helps a writer to make a good research paper. While writing a research paper or any document compiling the data of the primary and secondary research, the writer has to keep in mind the format that he or she has to abide by. The methods, experiments that have been conducted have to be mentioned in detail. The conclusions and the reasons for the conclusions have to be specified in a justified manner. The facts to be mentioned should be verified before stating them in any document that will be up for publishing. The information has to be genuine,otherwise the impression of the researcher or the student is hampered greatly.Research essayand term papers are very important part of the curriculum of a student pursuing higher education. Therefore, while writing a research paper and conducting research for that, he/she should keep the above stated facts in mind. The advantages and disadvantages of the methodologies should be kept in mind while undertaking research.

Literature Review Dissertation

Everyone must be familiar with the term ‘Literature Review’ but only a few know about it application in a concrete manner. So, here we are going to provide a general insight about the topic as well as its application in the field of studies and research work.

What is Literature Review?

A literature review is deep root analysis about any particular topic, which has been accredited by scholars, or researchers of the concerning field of study.

Literature review can manifest itself in the form of ‘Critical Appreciation’, which can aid in essay writing service for the students. It can also aid in the service of thesis writing which benefits the research works. In the terms of financial management, it proves to be valuable for marketing dissertation for the business tycoons to achieve their targeted goals.

Again, it must be kept in mind that a Literature review is not:

  • A gist of the entire work without any critical views.
  • A bibliography of the work.

The call for Review:

Any literature review proves to be a boon in academic as well as marketing field of work for the following reasons:

  • For ensuring a clear cut concept for understanding the topic lucidly.
  • Targeting for the strategic points of work.
  • For producing facsimile results in the field of research like thesis writing.
  • Ensuring a further detailed investigation about the concerned works.
  • Procuring critical reviews for the benefits of students for essay writing
  • To bridge the research gap between previous and new research works.

Literature review opens a vast array of critical reviews and review works for the students – be they in college or school. A work, which has been researched upon by any scholar or academic writer and has gained acclamation worldwide, is a boon for the students. They serve as a reference to highlight ‘meanings’ well hidden between the lines of the original work.

For undergraduates, they are a conceptual framework of the literature works – especially for the Sonnets and Ballads. While they can serve valuable information about any related topic, they can be mind-boggling, since every scholar performing literature reviews has their own standpoint and view to express about a particular line or phrase.

The Fields of Research:

Literature reviews possess a significant importance in the field of research which when subjected to critical appreciation illuminates different aspects revealed by different scholars. The types of literature review that can be conducted for research works or thesis writing are as follows:

  • Argumentative Review – This type of literature review encompasses its points based on philosophical views or interpretive assumptions, whose views should always contradict with the pre-existing research works. Argumentative review can be of great importance in order to reveal the truth existing between the lines of the works. However, the argumentative reviews shouldn’t be judgmental or biased, which might cause an upheaval among the laureates.
  • Integrative Review – Integrative review goes a long way for the research works, especially for thesis writing for the graduate students. Integrative reviews are done with the sole aim to solidify the previous research works related to literatures, by producing an almost facsimile work. However, the review shouldn’t be a complete replica of the existing works.
  • Historical Review – Historical reviews are done in quest of hidden information, which once might have been misinterpreted. It focuses from the origin of any works, and traces all the way through its evolution till the current works and research. Historical reviews pave the pathway for future research works of the students and researchers.
  • Theoretical Review – Theoretical reviews are done with the sole intention of agglomerating of the facts, information, concepts and sometimes hypothesis as well. Theoretical reviews helps to bridge the gap between the existing theories as well as the present found works and thus, it concretes the generation gap between different works. Theoretical reviews often serve as a backbone to the existing hypothesis, thus paving the way for the future research works in the practical fields.
  • Systematic Review– This type of review is done with the intention of methodical collection of information, then employing a research operation for collecting of valid data and finally undergoing a rigorous method for analyzing it. Research writing is highly dependent on systematic collection of data and therefore its one of the most valued research work.
  • Methodical Review – Methodical review consists of two different levels of research – qualitative research and quantitative research. The collection of data comes from the array of previously existing information as well as conceptual works to practical writings. It helps to create a formative theoretical underpinning of research, and assist in opening multiple paths for further research operations.

The Importance of Research:

Any Literature review work which is subjected to the field of research pertaining to academic or marketing, provide a great deal of importance to since it gives the insight, and perhaps reveals the hidden truths about it – which can’t be deciphered only by reading or analyzing it.

Any Literature review can benefit the students by providing them a platform to raise some questions like “How can this happen?”, “Why is this happening?” etc. and thus it opens the gateway for research such as descriptive, analytic, co relational. With this tool, research works ensures new foundation by allowing research workers to think beyond the previous works, and thus, scholars can look at the topic with a new perspective.

Thesis writing is benefitted with the work help of research. It provides a new affirmative ground for the work they’re doing – reveals the strength and weakness about their concerned work. Research workers can use the paraphrases to consolidate their viewpoint – thereby keeping a similarity with the original works.

Research work is done in the field of marketing dissertation in order to strengthen industry – customer relationship. More research works leads to the transformation of the business, in order to keep pace with the radical change of the society. Research works is conducted upon considering the importance key point such as

  • Potential quality.
  • Demand quality.
  • Output quality.

Research work is an ever changing process, and its demands are continually growing for providing better reviews to the people.

Therefore, all the above-mentioned discussions can now be meaningful enough to provide a brief idea about the need of Literature works review and its research works.

Data Collection Techniques and its Benefits

While performing any work of research, be it thesis writing or academic essay writing, we always need to collect some data or information irrespective of the field we are concerned with. The purpose of collecting data is to reach a definite decision or analysis. Therefore, the process of data collection can be categorized as primary and secondary data collection technique. In this article, we are going to describe about the various means of collecting primary data to conduct any work of research.

What does Primary Data collection means?

Primary Data, commonly referred as the Field Research is the data which is collected by the user for the 1st time and therefore it is always in its rudimentary form. Generally, these types of data have not undergone any structural or statistical alteration. This method generates the most authentic type of data, and itproduces result, which tallies with the product of service offered by your organization. In addition, the data originatedis unbiased, relevant and provides current information.

Therefore, one should be aware of the above-mentioned points in order to generate a perfect array or primary data, which account for their research work.

The Appropriate methods for Primary Data Collection:

Many techniques are employed when it comes to collection of primary data. Some of them are enumerated in details below:

  • Personal Investigation – This is the rudimentary method for collection of data. An observer has to directly observe the person, contact the informant, solicit for necessary information and note down the data. There are two techniques for collecting the data – be an observer and collect without the informant’s knowledge, or else confront the informant and take down the necessary information. This provides the most authentic and accurate data, without and judgmental biasing, provided that the investigator is himself unbiased and honest while noting down the data. This method is moderately expensive and time-consuming. So it offers meager scope when it comes in data collection.
  • Use of Local Sources – Many observers rely on this method for collecting data, when they cannot rely solely on the informant’s information. This is performed with the aid of local correspondents who questions some local sources and determines the accurate necessary data.However, this method is economical and expeditious and information can be gathered from a wide range of geographical region. This technique is generally used by governments agencies, news reporters etc.
  • Oral Interviews – This technique involves in accumulation of data indirectly. The informant is not questioned here, rather persons closely associated with the interviewee is questioned. This method is quite applicable in case of burglary where plagiarism of information is concerned. This approach possesses a similarity with cross-examination, as it involves numerous persons as interviewee. This method is cheap and time-saving and it solely depends upon the capability and integrity of the interviewer.
  • Collection through Questionnaires – This is widely used approach for collection of primary data. This reaching instrument is used by formulating a series of questions about the concerned field, and then spreading the questions to the public to obtain the answers. This method is quite economical compared to other methods, but it is time-consuming. However, it possesses one major drawback, as many do not return the essential feedback to the questionnaires within relevant time. Special correspondents are hired to obtain the quality responses from the public. The questionnaires series should be made as lucid as possible, allowing more people to participate. This is essential in case of thesis writing, where the researcher can easily gather data from different sources for formulating the paperwork.
  • Performing Experimentations – This is the most convenient approach for collection of data. It offers accurate and reliably correct elements of information. This approach is employed in the field of work like physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, mathematics. Experiments consist of evaluating a series of questions in order to reach the query. The external factors can be controlled by the experimenter so as to get the accurate results. Experiments can be conducted in laboratories or as field work, after which the observations can be analyzed to obtain the interference. This system provides authentic, unbiased results. However, the approach is time-consuming and expensive. Research paper writing is highly benefitted by this approach.
  • Formulating results from Survey – Survey works is another crucial means for collection of data. Survey work provides detailed information regarding any field of interest. Marketing sectors are highly benefitted from survey work where they aim to acquire knowledge regarding attitude, preference and buyers feedback. This method can provide an in-depth study of the drawbacks and also paves the way to improvise new methods to overcome them. However, survey work cannot ensure the satisfactory data, as many people do not have willingness on their part to furnish with truthful information to the surveyors.
  • Maintain a registered record – This is a hectic approach of data collection, but it goes in a long way for preserving the information over period of time. Municipal committees retain the list of deaths and births in a particular locality, thereby helps in providing authentic data in the call of need. This is a very inexpensive means of collecting data.

The Pros and Cons of acquiring Primary Data:

Collection of primary data can be a long-drawn-out process as well as expensive, but it provides a clear-cut authentic results. This is why it is preferred over secondary approach of data collection. The following advantages will clarify its importance, which are enlisted as follows:

  • Proper Targets – The concerned target of works are approached upon by the researchers to ensure the collection of unbiased, authentic data. Since there is a clean line of interaction between the interviewers and informant, so tampering of data is reduced.
  • Proper Interpretation – Only the essential data is collected with proper interpretation, which is subjected to the specified target, and the redundant data is discarded.
  • Proper Data collection – A decent collection of data is donewithout providing obsolete information.

However, certain disadvantages do possess their threats to this approach. Some of them are listed as:

  • Expensive – Certain methods like experimentations and personal interviews are quite expensive and thus, produce a hindrance to collection of data.
  • Time Consuming – Another major hindrance is requirement of time, in case of experiments for thesis writing therefore produces a drawback to collection.
  • Inaccuracy – In case of questionnaires, there are lack of appropriate feedback, which makes the interviewer to lose enthusiasm of their work. Inadequacy of feedback offers restrain to data collection.

Information is the fundamental block for research. Therefore, the investigator should make a wise, rational choice when it comes to collecting primary data so as offer authentic information to the researchers.

What are the major classifications of the interview method?

What is an interview?

An interview consists of the conversation and consequent exchange of information, between two people or more. The interviewer asks questions of various genres to get appropriate and required facts and information from the interviewee. Interviews are an integral part of journalism;nonetheless, it also has enormous importance in qualitative research.

What should be kept in mind while facing the interviewers?

While facing interviewers, the applicant should understand the importance of the situation and therefore out in his/her best as these interviews play a very decisive role in shaping up a student’s career. The applicant should be confident and should be able to clearly communicate with the interviewer. He/she should know what to do exactly in order to make himself /herself acceptable to work in the company for which he/she is being interviewed.

What are the various classifications in interview methods?

  • Situational Interview:In these interviews, the interviewee is given situations and he/she has to elucidate what he/she would have done had they been in that situation. The interviewer analyses the answers and marks the applicant accordingly.
  • Traditional Interview: It is the typical kind of interview where the interviewer has a fixed structure for the process. There is a formal introductions followed by a question-answer procedure which is followed by a brief close.
  • Non-Directive Interview:This type of interview does not adhere to any specific structure. It is more of a conversation rather than a typical stringently structured interview. The interviewer might not intervene at all and judge the applicant on the basis of how well he/she has been able to communicate his/her skills, interests and capabilities.
  • Behavioural Interviews:These interviews are designed to gauge the reaction and the basic nature of the applicant, by making them reveal about their past behaviour in various situations. It has been observed that it becomes difficult to analyse the behaviour of an employee through structured interviews, hence many companies are using this technique to judge their employees better.
  • Screening Interviews:These interviews are typically scheduled for 30 minutes and are held during on-campus recruiting in various colleges and universities. Screening interviews might be styled in various ways: nondirective, traditional, targeted etc.
  • The On-Campus Interview: This interview is a very crucial and decisive one. The applicant should present himself in a manner that will satisfy the needs of the company. Here, the applicant has to sell himself/herself in the market effectively.
  • Structured Interview: This kind of interview includes situational questions along with other assessing questions. The same set of questions are asked to the different candidates. Such a method avoids any sort of bias that the interviewer might practice during judging the candidates.
  • Unstructured Interview:This kind of interview consists of questions that vary from person to person. It depends on the resume of the applicant. Such unstructured methods are often tricky for the applicants, as they have to be very careful about their demeanour, even in casual situations.
  • Semi-Structured Interview: This type is an amalgamation of both unstructured and structured patterns of interview. The interviewer asks a set of predefined questions to all the candidates along with certain question that pertain particularly to the candidate’s resume and his/her course work.
  • Case Interview:This kind of interview is prevalently held in consulting firms where the interviewee is tested for his ability of solving problems instantly. Logical comprehension, general and business knowledge along with communicative and quantitative skills are also tested.
  • Testing/Assessment:This procedure is undertaken as an initial screening method and has proven to be an expensive procedure on part of the employer. It is conducted to judge the consistency of a candidate in carrying out a specific task.
  • Telephone Interview:This interview is an effective way of screening candidates and reduce the number of candidates to be called to personal interviews. The candidate should keep a professional mind set during the interview even if it is not being taken face to face.
  • Video Conferencing: Video conferencing is conducted to cover up the distance between the employer and the applicant. The attire, attitude and dialogue are essential attributes that should be given special attention to while on a video conferenced interview.
  • Panel Interview:This kind of interview is conducted by more than two interviewers. Questions to the candidate is thrown from the interviewers and the candidate has to keep his/her cool while facing the panel. This kind of interview is aimed to lessen any bias pertaining to any interviewer.
  • Group Interview: This kind of interview involves simultaneous conduction of interviews of various candidates fighting for the same job. These interviews judge the applicant’s leadership skills and his/her capability to work with other employees. The interviewers get an idea of how the applicant is likely to behave if employed.
  • Sequential/Serial Interview:This type of interview involves the entire interview process to be conducted in a series of steps. The interviewee has to first give an interview to an interviewer then go to another one and thus the process of interviewing takes place serially. The interviewers judge the candidate heavily on the basis of the first impression they leave on the interviewers. The interviewers then together discuss the capability of the candidate and give the verdict about their employment.
  • General Group Interview/Information Session: This kind of interview is adopted so that time is saved and also so that the candidates are well aware of the details of the job and the company. This session is followed by the personal interview.

What is the role of interview methods in research and journalism?

For research essay or any qualitative purpose, the interviewer enquires about every aspect under consideration to get the most accurate results. The answers are many a times recorded so that it stands as proof. For any research paper, raw data is extremely essential and it is best got from people through well-organised interviews. For journalists, interview is the basic fundamental of any coverage. Getting an interview, getting out interesting and needful facts is an essential part of the journalists.

Interviews have a lot of impact on one’s professional career and therefore, should be prepared well.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviews in Research

What are advantages and disadvantages of using the interview method?

Any conversation that has been initiated with the purpose to acquire some requisite information can be considered as an interview. The person who initiates the conversation is referred to as the Interviewer and the individual who is questioned is known as the Interviewee. The conversation between any such two people should be free-flowing without any interference from an outside source. However, during such conversation, both the person should talk in a relevant manner without deviating from the chief purpose of the interview. This topic will provide a deep insight about the benefits and drawbacks of conducting interviews to obtain information.

The need for Interview Method:

The collection of data can be achieved in various ways. One such method of gathering information is termed as ‘Interview Method’. Interview method produces both qualitative and quantitative measures for the gathering of data. Interviews have an array of applications ranging from accurate predictions to interviewee’s performance for job for future etc. Interviews method offers an easy approach for procuring a favorable impression upon the interviewers, thus making a seat in the organization or in the job.

Interviews play a quintessential part to perform a detailed reasoning and understanding of any issue or information. It is also applicable for informative decision-making, and strategic planning of work, like in case of research essay. However, there are certain merits and demerits of interview method, whichare broadly described below.

Method for Interviews:

Interviews can be done verbally with the physical presence or it can achieve over the digital technology like telephones or over internet calling facilities’ like Skype or video chats. However, interviewer prefers to conduct the interview in the physical presence of the interviewee. This facilitates the perfect share of information.

The Merits of the Interview Method:
Some of the benefits of Interview method are enumerated as follows:

  • Proper Adaptability –Interview method is quite effective when it comes in communicating personal opinions, perceptions and thoughts. It allows both the interviewer and the interviewee to share balanced opinions without creating any diversion in the communication channel.
  • Rectification –Occurrence of any misinterpretation and miscommunication can be easily avoided, and rectified owing to the physical presence of both the interviewer and the candidate in front of each other.
  • Build up of relationship –Physical presence can prompt the development of a cooperative relationship and mutual understanding between the interviewee and the interviewer thus encourages for maintaining a steady conversation.
  • Additional Information are Obtained –Any additional detailed information is obtained in reference to any discussed content, with sharing of ideas about different fields of same context.
  • Selection of Interviewee –Physical presence can be of immense help as it enhances the chances to select the particular candidate during any interview procedure.
  • Gathering of primary data –Authentic, accurate data is obtained during the interview procedure, thereby helps to maintain the stock of primary data, which can be summoned when secondary data fails to offer necessary information.
  • Saves time –Interview method is by far, turns out to be time saving procedure for collection of data. It bridges the communication gap, thus communication can be accomplished within a short instant of time.
  • Inexpensive –Since the communication techniques like telephone, Skype chat are notemployed, therefore it prompts an easy, inexpensive means for communicating between two people.
  • Clear the doubts– Interview method turns out to be a boon for paper writing service, as it explores different sectors, highlighting the same topic from different referential views, thereby ensures a strong standpoint for any discussed work, thus providing conclusive results.
  • In-depth study –Interview method provides another noteworthy result as it allows both the interviewer and interviewee to ‘think outside the box’. It allows accumulating a vast array of ideas, thereby helps in formulating the accurate data for writing the paperwork.
  • Solves extra cost –While investigation method calls the need to hire local agents and correspondents, it therefore adds an extra financial burden to the procedure of data collection. Interview method, does not require the need for the 3rdperson to bridge the communication barrier. Thus, it prevents the extra cash flow. In addition, it averts the growth of conflict between the agents, thereby curbing inconsistencies.
  • Flexibility –Another advantage worth mentioning is the flexibility, which allows the situations to be analyzed and framed differently, thereby allows both the interviewer and interviewee to affiance over different topics.

The Drawbacks of Interview Method:

In spite of having several advantages over other data acquiring techniques, there are certain drawbacks, which stand to be a hindrance for interview method. Some of them are broadly discussed as:

  • Time-consuming –An interview procedure can be conducted over a large span of time, especially in the case of interviewing any eye witnesses for cases like murders or any criminal acts, just to arrive at some conclusive data. Also, interpretations of the results can be conducted in several ways, thus making the method prolong.
  • Biasing of judgment –Interview methods produce biased judgments owing to the decision of the interviewers and wrong information provided by the interviewee.
  • Incomplete procedure –As the interview is conducted upon preferred candidates, therefore certain ideas misses out which widens communication gap.
  • Improper skill of interviewer –Many interviewers lack cooperative and communicative skills owing which leads to failure for collecting of accurate data. This results in producing disingenuous and erroneous outcomes.
  • No maintenance of record –Since the interview procedures are carried out verbally, therefore an accurate record of the verbal exchange is generally made. This sometimes, may tamper with the final evidence, thus producing erroneous data.
  • Shyness –Interviewee often feel shy, uncomfortable when they are subjected to certain fields of talk. This can conclude with failed disappointed results. Thus, the subject of interview should be carefully chosen which may not harm the integrity of the candidate.
  • Requires dedication –For conducting an interview, there should be cooperation between the interviewee and interviewer, so as to obtain the accurate information. This procedure requires patience, and conflicting situations needs to manage in an influential manner. Conflicts may be able to widen the communication barrier.

Thus from the above discussion, it is lucid that the interview method is, by far, one of the successive methods for accumulating records. Due to certain flaws, especially social cues, which can sometimes act as a hindrance to this system of data compilation.

What and How a survey conducted?

What is a survey and how can it be conducted?

Another tool for acquiring information from any relevant sources is achieved by performing a self-administered questionnaire, which is referred by the term ‘Survey’. Generally, survey forms the path to seek answers for those questions which fail to produce satisfactory results from normal approach questioning sessions. Survey sessions can be monotonous, yet they are an important asset for procuring the right information. This article will provide a lucid outline for the steps required to perform a successful survey.

What is a Survey?

A survey is a tool for acquiring data to gather information from any individuals. Surveys are use to describe, compare, collect societal knowledge and formulate the results according to your criterion. A survey allows self-administrated data-collection without the aid of foreign source. Surveys are beneficial which allows one to implement their analysis with the hypothesis thereby producing fruitful results. A well-designed survey evokes the 3 questions:

  • The foremost goal for survey
  • The approach to perform the survey operation
  • The conclusion that can be achieved from the survey results.

Thus, survey always focuses on the factual information or it focuses on obtaining evaluations from the survey takers.

Why a Survey is conducted?

Surveys are executed in order to achieve the answers to certain questions, which fail to provide satisfactory outcomes. Surveys are prepared for the following reasons, which are enlisted below as:

  • Reveal the truth– Surveyors initiate a survey in a private environment in order to obtain a successful honest feedback, meaningful opinions for the questionnaires. Such surveys can be carried out over the digital media like telephone conversations, or through online survey through internet.
  • Form new questions –Surveys allow the respondents to communicate with the surveyors in order to reveal the truth regarding any question. Research workers or academic writers are highly benefitted with the survey operations as it allows the surveyors to dig deeper into the discussion. It also paves a way to evoke new questions, which were overlooked before. A surveys operation thus allows the topic to be considered from a broader perspective.
  • Formulate decisions –Surveys operations provide an extensive approach for executing decisions. They are conducted so as to formulate a set of unbiased verdict, depending upon which an analyzed result can be achieved. This provides flexibility for addressing the fundamental topics rather focusing on the irrelevant parts.
  • Result Evaluation –After analyzing results, comparisons can be drawn between the hypothesized result and the formulated results. This enables the surveyors to establish the valuable result without any judgmental biasing. Feedbacks and opinions provided by the respondents are considered valuable as it draws a subtle line between their needs and demands about the surveyed topic.

How can a Survey be conducted?

Surveys can be formulated by interrelating many questions. A survey operation can be executed by considering the following steps:

  • Defining the Field –The foremost step for carrying out a survey operation is to identify the field, from which positive and relevant values can be achieved. This helps in strategic decision making, and also presumes the relative cost for carrying out a survey operation. In addition, it chalks out the uncertain results that the survey will throw.
  • Defining the Cost –An estimation of total budget is made, so that the survey work does not exceed the estimated expenditure. Most survey operations are not economical as it consists of the following expenditure – the cost for creating the survey platform, the cost for spreading the news for the survey, the cost for inviting the respondents to take active participations, and the final cost for calculation of data followed by the strategic analysis.
  • Formulating the project –The survey is framed along with the cost and effectiveness of the survey. A general hypothesis is made in order to calculate the time for the respondents to participate, data analysis and producing the results. This has to be done in comparison to the orthodox method for survey, so as to procure a better result. Another thing that needed to identify is the bridge the communication gap between the surveyors and the respondents. Advertising agencies comes to foreplay by spreading the word through website advertisements. An effective benefit can be achieved if the respondents are provided with some rewards. Surveys are done for paper writing services in order to obtain information about the choices of the public. This produces a rapid answer.
  • Formulating a survey question –Generally, a series of unbiased, authentic questions are devised which can be answered by any cosmopolitan.
  • Choosing Audience –The audience can be reached by the advertisements. Now, a crucial choice is need to be done in filtering the audience who matches with the criteria to respond for the survey projects. The analyzed result needed to formulated correctly in order to obtain satisfactory outcomes. The greater accuracy level invokes more positive outcomes. So, only those respondents who show higher response rates for participation are preferred for the survey.
  • Determining the goal and deadline –Once the questionnaires have been framed and the respondents have been shortlisted, the internal resources required to carry out the survey is framed out. Then a definitive timeline is evaluated which would be necessary to continue the survey operation. This helps to conclude the survey operation on time, and helps to commence the specific tasks of the survey within a deadline. Thus, a strategic survey plan can be initiated.

The Pros and Cons of Survey Work:

Survey proves to be the most promising system for gathering information without producing any judgmental biasing. However, there lie certain benefits and drawbacks in survey strategies. Some of the benefits of survey are listed as:

  • Surveys benefits for accumulating an array of data within a short span of time.
  • Surveys are beneficial for research works as they are economical as compared to other strategies for data collection.
  • Surveys can be administered with ease.

However, there lie certain disadvantages, which are as follows:

  • Response rate can be biased as many respondents are shy to reveal their actual feelings.
  • Poorer response rate as many respondents do not find the suitable answers available in the options list. This happens mostly in the case of online survey.
  • Poorer administrative skills of the surveyors resulting in expanding the span of time, and thus increasing the expenditure cost.

Thus, the above article provides a lucid layout for the steps that needed to be fulfilled in order to complete a survey successfully.

Why a survey is important for any thesis or dissertation?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using survey?

One of the primary tools to acquire information pertaining to any field of research or interest can be obtained by organizing a series of self-administrated questionnaires, which is referred as the Survey. Survey strategy provides an important tool to acquire information, whichcan be generated from the voluntary participation of the citizens. Surveys, thus fabricates the pathway to those hidden facts, whichweren’t much observant from ordinary discussions. This article will throw light about the strengths and weaknesses of different survey strategies used by different analysts and surveyors.

Why do we need to conduct Survey?

Generally, a survey operation is conducted in the hour of need when surveyors want to acquire statistical data about anything pertaining to their industrial work, or any issue, which possess a serious concern. A survey provides a platform to represent the definite capability of the huge population. As opposed to other strategies of data accumulation, survey provides almost an exact statistical figure of the surveyed item. Any well-designed survey evokes 3 major questions:

  • The foremost aim of the survey.
  • The cost and time required for the survey.
  • The total analyzed result obtained from the surveyed result.

Thus, a survey analysis always focuses on the evaluations provided the participants of the survey operation.

Techniques for conducting a Survey:

Any survey operation is conducted by any of the three mentioned approaches, which are itemized as follows:

  • Survey operations with self-structured questionnaires.
  • Survey operations with face-to-face interviews.
  • Survey operations over telephone conversations.

Self-structured questionnaires can be hosted through various means of digital technologies like email, fax, online survey question series etc.

Strength and Weaknesses of Questionnaires Survey:

This is the most popular approach to deal with any survey operations. Survey works pertaining to Research paper writing services and college paper writing services are completed using this technique. However, certain pros and cons exist which are highlighted as following.

The pros of Questionnaire method:

  • Anonymity –One of the major advantages of this method is that surveyor can remain anonymous. The questionnaires can be formulated by the surveyors of any industrial firm and then release it globally over the internet. This masks the identity of the surveyors, thus the audience can participate in the survey without discrimination or judgmental biasing.
  • Formulate accurate result –Questionnaire series produces accurate and authentic results based on the opinions of the audience, therefore, adds consistency to this design.
  • Inexpensive –Since internet allows the surveyors reach the audience irrespective of geographical boundaries, questionnaire series becomes less costly compared to other methods like interview, which demands the presence of the investigators in that location.
  • Less time –Questionnaires broadcasted over internet prevents consumption of time, as it provides flexibility to approach different participants together at the same time. This provides a meticulous approach for marketing dissertation as it produces accurate analysis.
  • Flexibility –It is a flexible approach as it allows the participants to share information according to their will. Thus, it safeguards participant’s choices, thereby encouraging more audience to partake in the survey.

The cons of Questionnaire Method:

  • Limited Choices –Questionnaires pose a major problem, which is lack of choices. This pose to be a major threat as participants, sometimes are unable to find the answers according to their will.
  • Cooperation Problem –Since there is no direct interaction between the surveyors and participants, the communication channel widens, thereby decreases the web traffic.
  • Unwillingness of Interviewer –The questionnaire comes to a conclusion, if there is unwillingness from the side of the interviewer to encourage the participants to contribute actively.

Strength and Weaknesses of Face-to-Face Survey interview:

This method produces the most accurate survey analysis, as it bridges the interaction gap between the surveyor and the participants. There lie certain flaws in this strategy, yet, it proves to be one of the powerful and tactful approaches for information accretion.

The benefits of the Face-to-face Survey are:

  • Proper Response –This survey strategy provides the maximum flexibility as it bridges the communication gap, thus, there is 100% involvement between the researcher and the participant. This increases the response rate from the audience.
  • Questions can be framed –This methodology allows the interviewer to frame the successive chain of questions depending upon the previous responses. Thus, it safeguards the sentiment of the audience.
  • Better feedback –Because this methodology involves physical presence of both the surveyor and the candidate, it offers a podium for the candidate to speak at their heart out. There will an increased rate of information exchange, consecutively, the survey process can expand its time span. Research work is highly benefitted from this approach, as they need precise information for their paper.

The drawbacks of Face-to-Face Survey:

  • Expensive and Time Consuming –This methodology turns out to be expensive, as it subjects only comparatively fewer candidate at a time. This increases the survey expenditure cost, and also the survey operation extends over the deadline.
  • Difficulty to Analyze –Since a large amount of information is generated in the conversation methodology; it becomes complicated to segregate out the accurate and precise information from the bulk of data.
  • Lack of Skill –The situation becomes tricky if the surveyor is not skilled enough to procure the rightful information from the candidate. The surveyor may harm the integrity of the candidate by subjecting biased questions to them.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Telephone Survey:

Telephone survey proves to be successful for information gathering as it is a reliable and cheap methodology. The strengths and weakness of telephone survey are enumerated below.

Strengths of Telephone Survey:

  • Cost efficient –Telephone survey proves to be one of the cheap and cost-effective procedures to reach any candidate irrespective of geographical position. Thus, it allows in performing global statistical survey.
  • Efficient –This methodology is efficient in time management, as more people can be surveyed in short time span. Within a deadline, information exchanging procedure is carried out, thus is benefits in interviewing multiple audience quickly.

Weaknesses of Telephone Survey:

  • Low Response Rate –Often there is unwillingness in the part of the respondent to respond in telephone survey, thus, there is typically low response rate.
  • Question Complexity –Telephone survey is targeted to only a particular class of audience. Therefore, it cannot reach to those audiences who have limited literacy.
  • Anonymity –Both the surveyor and the respondent remains anonymous to each other, thus, detailed information cannotbe obtained easily. This proves to be a drawback for research paper writing.

Format or Reformat Dissertation in an Hour or Less!

How to Format your Dissertation in an Hour?

Writing a dissertation can be a very tough process for most people. They take it as if they have to write a whole book. In some ways this relation might actually be true. But by definition, dissertation is a self-directed process. It is not like the other assignments that you have to do in your graduation studies. Your professors do not give you deadlines that you have to meet every week. You do not discuss your work with your classmates daily and there is no one bossing you around telling you how to do your work. You are at a liberty to do what you want and writing something that has to be extraordinary. For some this freedom to write independently can be welcoming while for others it is a frightening journey. For all, it is a time in which you start to think seriously about all of your college life and think about your future too. This dissertation marks the ending of your graduate life. After finishing your dissertation, you will enter a new world filled with new experiences and new things to learn about. Whether you have thought about the future yet or not, writing a professional dissertation which is properly formatted is a tricky business. These guidelines written down below will help you to format your dissertation in an hour. They are simple steps and should be followed in order to get a perfect dissertation.

  • Keep your margins to a minimum of one inch on each side of your page.
  • Your text should be readable. It should have a professional look to it and the font should be proper and precise. The size should minimum 12 and can be smaller for tables, footnotes or other material outside of the main text. Using black text is most appropriate but for figures, tables, etc you can use color too.
  • Line spacing is a significant formatting procedure. It should be 1 ½ or twice with the barring of tables, lists, quotations, footnotes/endnotes, figures, table legends, captions and bibliographic entries. These ought to be single-line spaced.
  • The first page of every segment (Acknowledgements, Table of Contents, Lists, etc.), part and addendum should begin on a fresh page and should contain a two inch top margin.
  • Bibliography or Reference part(s) are required to come at the conclusion of every chapter or at the very end of the dissertation. They must be in the arrangement favored by the regulation.
  • If you want to incorporate additional figures, tables, illustrations, appendix, etc., create separate lists of all items that consist of the figure/table number, caption/legend and page number on which it starts.
  • Tables, figures, illustrations, etc. must be exclusively and successively numbered all the way through.
  • Chapter numbers, chapter titles, and page numbers (on which chapters begin) should be listed in Table of Contents. The word “Chapter” must become visible earlier than each chapter number (or as a heading) in the Table of Contents and on the first page of the chapter.
  • Front matter page numbers should be lowercase Roman numerals, starting with page ii (preferably centered at the bottom of the page). Dissertation text starts with page 1.
  • Front matter should be in the following order (first numbered page must be page ii) and so on.
  • The Title page is obligatory but there should not be any page number on it.
  • The Frontispiece is elective but it should also have no page number on it.
  • The Copyright page is not obligatory and it should have no page number on it.
  • The Dedication is non-compulsory but it must have a page number on it. (lowercase Roman numerals start here)
  • The Acknowledgements are voluntary and must have page number.
  • The Preface is optional and must have a page number.
  • The Table of Contents is compulsory and must have a page number.
  • The List of Tables, List of Figures, etc is mandatory when there is more than one item. This list should also have a page number.
  • The List of Appendices is mandatory when there is more than one. They must have a page number.
  • The List of Abbreviations, List of Acronyms, List of Symbols is optional but if included must have a page number.
  • The Abstract is optional but must have a page number.

Dissertation writing should be done when you are completely focused and concentrated. When you find the will to start it, you can come up with excellent ideas and these formatting techniques will help you to complete the whole package in no time.